Immunosuppressive therapy in acute myocarditis: an 18 year systematic review.
ABSTRACT Immunosuppressive therapy is reportedly ineffective in adults with acute myocarditis.
To systematically review the impact of immunosuppressive therapy on the outcome of acute myocarditis in children.
A literature search for articles published from 1984 to 2003 was conducted with the following keywords: myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and immunosuppression. The relevant studies were systematically reviewed and comparison of treatment effect was made by calculating the odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) using the exact method based on the exact discrete reference distribution.
Of the 1470 articles found, only nine studies were eligible. The odds for improvement with immunosuppression was between 4.33 (95% CI 0.52 to 52.23) and 2.7 (95% CI 0.59 to 14.21). Addition of a second immunosuppressive agent to prednisolone only proved effective in one randomised controlled trial (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.52). Heterogeneity of these studies precluded pooled odds ratio.
Current data suggest that immunosuppressive therapy does not significantly improve outcomes in children with acute myocarditis and there is insufficient evidence for its routine use. However, statistical power to detect a significant difference in the treatment effect may be limited because of the small number of subjects. This, together with problems of diagnosis, varying treatment practices, and a relative lack of evidence based guidelines would support efforts for a large multicentre, randomised controlled trial to better define the role of immunosuppression in acute myocarditis.
Annals of internal medicine 04/1998; 128(8):648-50. · 16.73 Impact Factor
Article: The European Study of Epidemiology and Treatment of Cardiac Inflammatory Disease (ESETCID).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of myocarditis has improved with the application of new techniques such as immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization and Southern blot in endomyocardial biopsies. Treatment of inflammatory heart disease is still difficult and not yet validated by a study with patient numbers sufficient to allow statistical analysis. The European Study of Epidemiology and Treatment of Cardiac Inflammatory Disease (ESETCID) addresses problems of aetiology, pathogenesis and specific treatment of myocarditis. It is the first multicentre, double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study, apart from the Myocarditis Treatment Trial, to discriminate between different forms of myocarditis. Patients with cytomegalovirus-induced myocarditis are treated by hyperimmunoglobulin compared to placebo. Patients with enterovirus-positive myocarditis will receive interferon alpha vs placebo. Patients with virus-negative myocarditis, which is considered autoimmune, will be treated with immunosuppression compared to placebo. The primary endpoint of this study is an improvement in ejection fraction of more than 5%. This trial may give a better understanding of the course of myocarditis, leading to more specific treatment which may in turn reduce the number of patients with post-myocardial heart muscle disease who require heart transplantation as a final therapeutic remedy.European Heart Journal 01/1996; 16 Suppl O:173-5. · 10.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Myocarditis Treatment Trial was a multicentre clinical trial conducted to determine the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy for treatment of biopsy-documented myocarditis, and to improve understanding of the immunological mechanisms in the development of myocarditis. Thirty-one centres screened 2305 patients with unexplained heart failure, and 2233 patients underwent an endomyocardial biopsy which provided adequate tissue for diagnosis. Those with a positive biopsy and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 45% were randomly assigned to receive immunosuppressive therapy plus conventional drug therapy for congestive heart failure (66 patients) or conventional therapy only (45 patients) for 24 weeks. For 28 additional weeks all patients received conventional therapy only. In addition to diagnostic and clinical data, serum and myocardial tissue for immunological marker analysis and histopathologic evaluation were collected at baseline and at 12, 28 and 52 weeks after randomization. The primary analysis of efficacy was designed as a comparison of the mean increase in LVEF at week 28 between treatment limbs. Secondary objectives were to evaluate survival differences, and changes in the histopathology of the disease and immunological markers. Randomized patients were relatively young (mean age, 42.0 years +/- 13.8 standard deviation (sd) and entered the Trial with a mean LVEF percent of 24.3 +/- 10.1 sd) and mean exercise treadmill duration of 9.4 (+/- 5.3 sd) minutes. The incidence of biopsy-documented myocarditis was low (9.6%). The analyses of outcome and immunological data are reported elsewhere.European Heart Journal 01/1996; 16 Suppl O:162-7. · 10.48 Impact Factor