Are varicose veins a marker for susceptibility to coronary heart disease in men? Results from the Normative Aging Study.
ABSTRACT Clinical observations suggest that varicose veins (VV) are less frequent in patients undergoing infrainguinal bypass surgery for femoral artery occlusive disease. While some previous studies support this relationship, others report that VV are more prevalent in coronary heart disease patients (CHD). This study used the Normative Aging Study (NAS) population to examine the association between VV and symptomatic CHD. The incidence of CHD over 35 years of follow-up was determined in the 2280 initially healthy male volunteers enrolled in the NAS. The incidence of CHD in the VV population and the subjects without VV were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log-rank test. A time-dependent proportional hazards regression method was used to further explore the relationship between VV disease and subsequent development of CHD after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 569 subjects (24.9%) were diagnosed with VV prior to the development of symptomatic CHD, and 1708 (75.1%) were not. Over 35 years of follow-up, 98 subjects with VV developed symptomatic CHD (17.2%), while 363 of those without VV subsequently developed symptomatic CHD (21.2%). Kaplan-Meier survival curves suggested a reduced risk of symptomatic CHD for subjects with VV (p = 0.0001). Further exploration of this relationship in a proportional hazards multivariate model showed VV to be associated with a 36% decreased risk of symptomatic CHD after adjusting for other recognized cardiovascular risk factors. In the NAS population, men with VV were less likely to develop symptomatic CHD over the 35+ years of follow-up than were subjects without VV.
- SourceAvailable from: circres.ahajournals.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Males produce endogenous estrogen from testosterone via the enzyme aromatase. Previous studies have suggested a role for endogenous estrogens in cardiovascular function in men. We examined the effects of endogenous estrogen suppression via aromatase inhibition on endothelial function, systemic arterial compliance, and lipoprotein levels in healthy young men. Using a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized design, 20 healthy men, aged 18 to 32 years, were randomized to receive either the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole (1 mg) or matching placebo. Hormone, lipid levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocysteine were measured. Endothelial function, determined by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, and systemic arterial compliance were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment. There was a significant decrease in 17beta-estradiol concentrations with aromatase inhibition, from 85.4+/-4.2 to 64.3+/-8.1 pmol/L (mean+/-SD, P=0.042). Compared with baseline, a significant decrease in flow-mediated dilation was observed in subjects taking anastrozole [median, 6.1% (range, 5.2 to 13.4) to 3.5% (2.0 to 5.7), P=0.034] but not in the placebo group. No changes were observed in nitroglycerin-induced endothelium-independent dilation in either group. There was no change in systemic arterial compliance with either aromatase therapy or placebo. There were no significant changes in lipoproteins, testosterone, DHEA, CRP, or homocysteine levels in either the anastrozole or placebo group. We conclude that suppression of endogenous estrogens with an aromatase inhibitor resulted in impairment of flow-mediated dilation without significant changes in lipoproteins, homocysteine, or CRP. Our results suggest that endogenous estrogens play a direct regulatory role in endothelial function in young healthy men.Circulation Research 12/2003; 93(11):1127-33. · 11.86 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of varicose veins was higher among lower social subjects and was positively associated with a body-mass index, cigarette consumption and diastolic blood pressure. A detailed dietary survey in a subsample of the population showed a significantly higher total calory intake in men with varicose veins but no difference in the distribution of the various nutrients. During follow up for subsequent atherosclerotic disease (average 6.6 yrs), men with varicose veins were at a significantly higher risk for intermittent claudication and, at least in the lower social class, for hard coronary heart disease. No association was found with angina pectoris incidence.International Journal of Epidemiology 01/1982; 10(4):329-35. · 6.98 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to indicate how repeated measures on risk factors have been employed in the prediction of the development of disease in the Framingham Heart Study. Since these measures vary over time, the method accounts for time dependent covariates. The technique is a generalized person-years approach in that it treats each observation interval (of equal length) as a mini-follow-up study in which the current risk factor measurements are employed to predict an event in the interval. Observations over multiple intervals are pooled into a single sample to predict the short term risk of an event. This approach is compared to the long-term prediction of disease which utilizes only the baseline measurements and ignores subsequent repeated measures on the risk factors.Statistics in Medicine 01/2006; 7(1-2):205-22. · 2.04 Impact Factor