Blood transfusion rates in the care of acute trauma
ABSTRACT Ten to 15 percent of all RBCs are used in the care of injury. Understanding patterns of RBC use is important. Routine resource allocation, planning for mass casualty situations, designing research, and optimizing triage all can be usefully informed.
Blood Bank and Trauma Registry records were linked to produce a transfused blood product list for each patient directly admitted from the scene of injury to a large Level 1 trauma center in calendar year 2000. Categorical associations between demographic data, Injury Severity Score, transfused products, and outcome were sought. Special attention was paid to the groups receiving uncross-matched RBCs and more than 10 units of RBCs.
Eight percent (479/5645) of acute trauma patients received RBCs, using 5219 units and sustaining an overall mortality of 27 percent. Sixty-two percent of RBCs were given in the first 24 hours of care. Three percent of patients (147 injured) received more than 10 units and received 71 percent of all RBCs given. Mortality in this cohort was 39 percent. Ninety percent of the patients who received more than 10 units of RBCs received plasma, and 71 percent received PLTs.
A small number of patients receives most of the blood products used in the treatment of injury. Transfusion of more than 10 units of RBCs identifies a subgroup where most patients received plasma and PLTs to treat actual or anticipated dilutional coagulopathy. There is no clear threshold beyond which blood use is futile.
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ABSTRACT: Ongoing bleeding after blunt solid organ injury in children may require invasive therapy in the form of either angiographic or operative control. We report our experience in the use of a procoagulant, recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa), for controlling persistent bleeding in blunt abdominal trauma in children. After institutional review board approval, the records of 8 children with blunt abdominal trauma, persistent bleeding, and managed nonoperatively with rFVIIa were reviewed. All 8 patients presented to our institution after sustaining blunt abdominal trauma and solid organ injury. All children had evidence of persistent bleeding with a drop in hematocrit and elevation in heart rate. Patients received a single dose of rFVIIa at 75 to 90 microg/kg (1 patient had 24 microg/kg) and had successful control of their bleeding without any further therapeutic intervention. Only 3 patients required a blood transfusion after rFVIIa administration--2 who had subarachnoid hemorrhages and the third during pelvic fixation. There were no cases of thromboembolic events after treatment with rFVIIa. Recombinant factor VIIa is a useful adjunctive therapy in pediatric patients with evidence of ongoing hemorrhage from blunt abdominal injury and may reduce the need for invasive therapeutic procedures and transfusions.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 02/2008; 43(1):195-8; discussion 198-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2007.09.044 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The reality of finite resources has a real-world impact on a patient's ability to receive life-saving care in resource-poor settings. Blood for transfusion is an example of a scarce resource. Very few studies have looked at predictors of survival in patients requiring massive transfusion. We used data from a rural hospital in Kenya to develop a prediction model of survival among patients receiving massive transfusion. Patients who received five or more units of whole blood within 48 hours between 2004 and 2010 were identified from a blood registry in a rural hospital in Kenya. Presenting characteristics and in-hospital survival were collected from charts. Using stepwise selection, a logistic model was developed to predict who would survive with massive transfusion versus those who would die despite transfusion. An ROC curve was created from this model to quantify its predictive power. Ninety-five patients with data available met inclusion criteria, and 74% survived to discharge. The number of units transfused was not a predictor of mortality, and no threshold for futility could be identified. Preliminary results suggest that initial blood pressure, lack of comorbidities, and indication for transfusion are the most important predictors of survival. The ROC curve derived from our model demonstrates an area under the curve (AUC) equal to 0.757, with optimism of 0.023 based on a bootstrap validation. This study provides a framework for making prioritization decisions for the use of whole blood in the setting of massive bleeding. Our analysis demonstrated an overall survival rate for patients receiving massive transfusion that was higher than clinical perception. Our analysis also produced a preliminary model to predict survival in patients with massive bleeding. Prediction analyses can contribute to more efficient prioritization decisions; these decisions must also include other considerations such as equity, acceptability, affordability and sustainability.PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0127987. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0127987 · 3.53 Impact Factor
Article: Hypovolemic Shock Resuscitation[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Several changes in the way patients with hemorrhagic shock are resuscitated have occurred over the past decades, including permissive hypotension, minimal crystalloid resuscitation, earlier blood transfusion, and higher plasma and platelet-to-red cell ratios. Hemostatic adjuncts, such as tranexamic acid and prothrombin complex, and the use of new methods of assessing coagulopathy are also being incorporated into resuscitation of the bleeding patient. These ideas have been incorporated by many trauma centers into institutional massive transfusion protocols, and adoption of these protocols has resulted in improvements in mortality and morbidity. This article discusses each of these new resuscitation strategies and the evidence supporting their use.Surgical Clinics of North America 12/2012; 92(6):1403-23. DOI:10.1016/j.suc.2012.08.006 · 1.93 Impact Factor