Blood transfusion rates in the care of acute trauma
ABSTRACT Ten to 15 percent of all RBCs are used in the care of injury. Understanding patterns of RBC use is important. Routine resource allocation, planning for mass casualty situations, designing research, and optimizing triage all can be usefully informed.
Blood Bank and Trauma Registry records were linked to produce a transfused blood product list for each patient directly admitted from the scene of injury to a large Level 1 trauma center in calendar year 2000. Categorical associations between demographic data, Injury Severity Score, transfused products, and outcome were sought. Special attention was paid to the groups receiving uncross-matched RBCs and more than 10 units of RBCs.
Eight percent (479/5645) of acute trauma patients received RBCs, using 5219 units and sustaining an overall mortality of 27 percent. Sixty-two percent of RBCs were given in the first 24 hours of care. Three percent of patients (147 injured) received more than 10 units and received 71 percent of all RBCs given. Mortality in this cohort was 39 percent. Ninety percent of the patients who received more than 10 units of RBCs received plasma, and 71 percent received PLTs.
A small number of patients receives most of the blood products used in the treatment of injury. Transfusion of more than 10 units of RBCs identifies a subgroup where most patients received plasma and PLTs to treat actual or anticipated dilutional coagulopathy. There is no clear threshold beyond which blood use is futile.
SourceAvailable from: Shiming Yang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Early detection of hemorrhagic shock is required to facilitate prompt coordination of blood component therapy delivery to the bedside and to expedite performance of lifesaving interventions. Standard physical findings and vital signs are difficult to measure during the acute resuscitation stage, and these measures are often inaccurate until patients deteriorate to a state of decompensated shock. The aim of this study is to examine a severely injured trauma patient population to determine whether a noninvasive SpHb monitor can predict the need for urgent blood transfusion (universal donor or additional urgent blood transfusion) during the first 12 h of trauma patient resuscitation. We hypothesize that trends in continuous SpHb, combined with easily derived patient-specific factors, can identify the immediate need for transfusion in trauma patients. Subjects were enrolled if directly admitted to the trauma center, >17 years of age, and with a shock index (heart rate/systolic blood pressure) >0.62. Upon admission, a Masimo Radical-7 co-oximeter sensor (Masimo Corporation, Irvine, CA) was applied, providing measurement of continuous non-invasive hemoglobin (SpHb) levels. Blood was drawn and hemoglobin concentration analyzed and conventional pulse oximetry photopletysmograph signals were continuously recorded. Demographic information and both prehospital and admission vital signs were collected. The primary outcome was transfusion of at least one unit of packed red blood cells within 24 h of admission. Eight regression models (C1-C8) were evaluated for the prediction of blood use by comparing area under receiver operating curve (AUROC) at different time intervals after admission. 711 subjects had continuous vital signs waveforms available, to include heart rate (HR), SpHb and SpO2 trends. When SpHb was monitored for 15 min, SpHb did not increase AUROC for prediction of transfusion. The highest ROC was recorded for model C8 (age, sex, prehospital shock index, admission HR, SpHb and SpO2) for the prediction of blood products within the first 3 h of admission. When data from 15 min of continuous monitoring were analyzed, significant improvement in AUROC occurred as more variables were added to the model; however, the addition of SpHb to any of the models did not improve AUROC significantly for prediction of blood use within the first 3 h of admission in comparison to analysis of conventional oximetry features. The results demonstrate that SpHb monitoring, accompanied by continuous vital signs data and adjusted for age and sex, has good accuracy for the prediction of need for transfusion; however, as an independent variable, SpHb did not enhance predictive models in comparison to use of features extracted from conventional pulse oximetry. Nor was shock index better than conventional oximetry at discriminating hemorrhaging and prediction of casualties receiving blood. In this population of trauma patients, noninvasive SpHb monitoring, including both trends and absolute values, did not enhance the ability to predict the need for blood transfusion.Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10877-015-9671-1 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to explore the correlation between red blood cell (RBC) transfusion volume and patient mortality in massive blood transfusion. A multicenter retrospective study was carried out on 1,601 surgical inpatients who received massive blood transfusion in 20 large comprehensive hospitals in China. According to RBC transfusion volume and duration, the patients were divided into groups as follows: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-39 and ≥40 units within 24 or 72 h. Mortality in patients with different RBC transfusion volumes was analyzed. It was found that patient mortality increased with the increase in the volume of RBC transfusion when the total RBC transfusion volume was ≥10 units within 24 or 72 h. Survival analysis revealed significant differences in mortality according to the RBC transfusion volume (χ(2)=72.857, P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that RBC transfusion volume is an independent risk factor [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52; confidence interval (CI): 0.43-0.64; P<0.01] for the mortality of patients undergoing a massive blood transfusion. When RBCs were transfused at a volume of 5-9 units within 24 and 72 h, the mortality rate was the lowest, at 3.7 and 2.3% respectively. It is concluded that during massive blood transfusion in surgical inpatients, there is a correlation between RBC transfusion volume within 24 or 72 h and the mortality of the patients. Patient mortality increases with the increase in the volume of RBC transfusion. RBC transfusion volume, the length of stay at hospital and intensive care unit stay constitute the independent risk factors for patient mortality.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 01/2015; 9(1):137-142. DOI:10.3892/etm.2014.2068 · 0.94 Impact Factor
Article: Transfusion practices in trauma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury.Indian journal of anaesthesia 11/2014; 58(5):608-615. DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.144668