Costs and net health effects of contraceptive methods.
ABSTRACT Pregnancy and contraceptive methods both have important health effects that include risks and benefits. The net impact of contraception on women's health has not been reported previously.
This is a cost-utility analysis using a Markov model evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation using the societal perspective for costs. The analysis compared 13 methods of contraception to nonuse of contraception with respect to healthcare costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Discounting was applied for future costs and health effects. The base-case analysis applies to women of average health and fertility, ranging from 15 to 50 years of age, who are sexually active in a mutually monogamous relationship; smoking rates observed in women of reproductive age were used. Sensitivity analysis extended the analysis to nonmonogamous status and smoking status.
Compared with use of no contraception, contraceptive methods of all types result in substantial cost savings over 2 years, ranging from US$5907 per woman for tubal sterilization to US$9936 for vasectomy and health gains ranging from 0.088 QALYs for diaphragm to 0.147 QALYs for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. Compared with nonuse, even with a time horizon as short as 1 year, use of any method other than sterilization results in financial savings and health gains. Most of the financial savings and health gains were due to contraceptive effects. In a population of patients, even modest increases in the use of the most effective methods result in financial savings and health gains.
Every method of contraception dominates nonuse in most clinical settings. Increasing the use of more effective methods even modestly at the expense of less effective methods will improve health and reduce costs. Methods that require action by the user less frequently than daily are both less costly and more effective than methods requiring action on a daily basis.
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Article: [Sexually transmitted diseases].Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità 01/1987; 3(3-4):234-8.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess rates of visits to emergency departments for gynecologic disorders among women of reproductive age in the United States.Methods: Data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 1992–1994 were analyzed to determine rates of visits to emergency departments among women, ages 15–44 years. Average annual rates per 1000 women were calculated using age, race, and region-specific population estimates. Rate ratios were used to compare rates among subgroups.Results: Approximately 1.4 million gynecologic visits were made to emergency departments annually, for an average annual rate of 24.3 visits per 1000 women, ages 15–44 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.0, 26.6). The most frequent diagnoses were pelvic inflammatory disease (average annual rate 5.8, 95% CI 5.0, 6.6), lower genital tract infections including sexually transmitted diseases (average annual rate 5.7, 95% CI 4.8, 6.6), and menstrual disorders (average annual rate 2.9, 95% CI 2.3, 3.5). Nearly half of all gynecologic visits resulted in diagnoses of genital tract infections. Younger women (ages 15–24 years) were 2.3 (95% CI 2.0, 2.6) times as likely as older women (ages 25–44 years), and black women were 3.6 (95% CI 2.9, 4.3) times as likely as white women, to visit emergency departments for gynecologic disorders. Rate ratios for genital tract infections were 10–20 times higher for younger black women than for older, white women.Conclusion: Almost half of gynecologic visits to emergency departments were related to genital tract infections, which largely are preventable. (Obstet Gynecol 1998;91:1007–12.)Obstetrics and Gynecology - OBSTET GYNECOL. 01/1998; 91(6):1007-1012.
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ABSTRACT: As part of the Danish contribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Project, a register of patients with stroke was established in 1982. The purpose of the present study was to analyze long-term survival and causes of death after a first stroke and to compare them with those of the background population. The study population comprised all subjects aged 25 years or older who were resident in a geographically defined region in Copenhagen County. All stroke events in the study population during 1982-1991 were ascertained and validated according to standardized criteria outlined for the WHO MONICA Project. After completion of the stroke registry at the end of 1991, all patients were followed up by record linkage to official registries. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated for various causes of death and periods after the stroke. The estimated cumulative risks for death at 28 days, 1 year, and 5 years after onset were 28%, 41%, and 60%, respectively. Compared with the general population, nonfatal stroke was associated with an almost 5-fold increase in risk for death between 4 weeks and 1 year after a first stroke and a 2-fold increase in the risk for death subsequent to 1 year. The excess mortality rate in stroke patients was due mainly to cardiovascular diseases but also to cancer, other diseases, accidents, and suicide. The probability for long-term survival improved significantly during the observation period for patients with ischemic or ill-defined stroke. Stroke is a medical emergency associated with a very high risk for death in the acute and subacute phases and with a continuous excess risk of death. Better prevention and management of strokes may improve the long-term survival rate.Stroke 10/2001; 32(9):2131-6. · 6.16 Impact Factor