Blood cell gene expression profiling in rheumatoid arthritis. Discriminative genes and effect of rheumatoid factor.
ABSTRACT To study the pathogenic importance of the rheumatoid factor (RF) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to identify genes differentially expressed in patients and healthy individuals, total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from eight RF-positive and six RF-negative RA patients, and seven healthy controls. Gene expression of about 10,000 genes were examined using oligonucleotide-based DNA chip microarrays. The analyses showed no significant differences in PBMC expression patterns from RF-positive and RF-negative patients. However, comparisons of gene expression patterns from all fourteen RA patients and healthy controls identified a subset of discriminative genes. These results were validated by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on another group of RA patients and healthy controls. This confirmed that the following genes had a significantly higher expression in RA patients than in healthy controls: CD14 antigen, defensin alpha-1 and alpha-3 (DEFA), fatty-acid-Coenzyme A ligase, long-chain 2 (FACL), ribonuclease 2 (RNASE2), S100 calcium-binding protein A8 and A12 (S100A8 and S100A12). In contrast, the expression of MHC class II, DQ beta1 (HLA-DQB1) was significantly reduced in RA patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusions: With the analytical procedure employed, we did not find any indication that RF-positive and RF-negative RA are two fundamentally different diseases. Most of the genes discriminative between RA patients and healthy individuals are known to be involved in immunoinflammatory responses, especially those related to altered phagocytic functions.
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ABSTRACT: Defensins are small cationic peptides with antimicrobial properties. They constitute a highly conserved innate immune defense mechanism across species. Based on the arrangement of disulfide-bonds, α-and β-defensins are distinguished in humans. Both types of defensin comprise several distinct molecules that are preferentially expressed at epithelial surfaces and in blood cells. In the last decade, multiple immunomodulatory functions of defensins have been recognized, including chemotactic activity, the promotion of antigen presentation, and modulations of proinflammatory cytokine secretion. These findings suggested a role for defensins not only as a first line of defense, but also as connectors of innate and adaptive immune responses. Recently, increasingly accumulating evidence has indicated that defensins may also be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune rheumatic disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. The current review summarizes the data connecting defensins to autoimmunity.Polymers. 01/2011; 3:1268-1281.
Article: Peripheral blood expression profiles of bone morphogenetic proteins, tumor necrosis factor-superfamily molecules, and transcription factor Runx2 could be used as markers of the form of arthritis, disease activity, and therapeutic responsiveness.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess whether different forms of arthritis and disease activity could be distinguished by peripheral blood expression profiles of bone-regulatory factors including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-superfamily [TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), the Fas ligand (FasL), and the ligand for herpesvirus entry mediator (LIGHT)] and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-family members (BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6) as well as osteoblast differentiation gene Runx2. Blood cells from healthy controls (n = 25) and patients at different disease stages with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 49), osteoarthritis (OA; n = 17), or spondyloarthritis, including ankylosing spondylitis (AS; n = 27) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA; n = 23), were processed for quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression was assessed in comparison with control samples, correlated with clinical data of different forms of arthritis, and analyzed for discriminative efficacy between groups by receiver-operation characteristic (ROC) curves. Results were confirmed on diagnostic RA (n = 5) and AS (n = 8) samples. BMP-4, BMP-6, and Runx2 expressions were significantly decreased in patients with RA and OA versus controls. Patients with RA also had decreased FasL and LIGHT expression, while patients with AS had increased Runx2 expression. Negative correlation with disease activity was found for BMP-4, FasL, and Runx2 in RA and for Runx2 in PsA, while positive correlation was found for BMP-4 in PsA. Gene expression was higher in the therapy-resistant form of AS (for BMP-4, LIGHT, and Runx2) and in methotrexate-treated patients in RA (for BMP-2 and LIGHT). ROC curve analysis confirmed discrimination between groups, particularly decreased LIGHT and Runx2 for RA and increased Runx2 for AS. Our study identified BMP and Runx2 as possible biomarkers of bone metabolism in several forms of arthritis, while lower FasL and LIGHT were associated with RA. Correlation between gene expression and disease activity may be clinically useful in assessing therapeutic effectiveness and disease monitoring.The Journal of Rheumatology 12/2009; 37(2):246-56. · 3.69 Impact Factor
Article: High ACSL5 transcript levels associate with systemic lupus erythematosus and apoptosis in Jurkat T lymphocytes and peripheral blood cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypical autoimmune disease in which increased apoptosis and decreased apoptotic cells removal has been described as most relevant in the pathogenesis. Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (ACSLs) have been involved in the immunological dysfunction of mouse models of lupus-like autoimmunity and apoptosis in different in vitro cell systems. The aim of this work was to assess among the ACSL isoforms the involvement of ACSL2, ACSL4 and ACSL5 in SLE pathogenesis. With this end, we determined the ACSL2, ACSL4 and ACSL5 transcript levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 45 SLE patients and 49 healthy controls by quantitative real time-PCR (q-PCR). We found that patients with SLE had higher ACSL5 transcript levels than healthy controls [median (range), healthy controls = 16.5 (12.3-18.0) vs. SLE = 26.5 (17.8-41.7), P = 3.9×10 E-5] but no differences were found for ACSL2 and ACSL4. In in vitro experiments, ACSL5 mRNA expression was greatly increased when inducing apoptosis in Jurkat T cells and PBMCs by Phorbol-Myristate-Acetate plus Ionomycin (PMA+Io). On the other hand, short interference RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of ACSL5 decreased induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells up to the control levels as well as decreased mRNA expression of FAS, FASLG and TNF. These findings indicate that ACSL5 may play a role in the apoptosis that takes place in SLE. Our results point to ACSL5 as a potential novel functional marker of pathogenesis and a possible therapeutic target in SLE.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e28591. · 4.09 Impact Factor