Article

Resting CD4+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals carry integrated HIV-1 genomes within actively transcribed host genes.

Department of Medicine, Ross 1049, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 720 Rutland Ave., Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 5.08). 07/2004; 78(12):6122-33. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.78.12.6122-6133.2004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Resting CD4+ T-cell populations from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals include cells with integrated HIV-1 DNA. In individuals showing suppression of viremia during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), resting CD4+ T-cell populations do not produce virus without cellular activation. To determine whether the nonproductive nature of the infection in resting CD4+ T cells is due to retroviral integration into chromosomal regions that are repressive for transcription, we used inverse PCR to characterize the HIV-1 integration sites in vivo in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART. Of 74 integration sites from 16 patients, 93% resided within transcription units, usually within introns. Integration was random with respect to transcriptional orientation relative to the host gene and with respect to position within the host gene. Of integration sites within well-characterized genes, 91% (51 of 56) were in genes that were actively expressed in resting CD4+ T cells, as directly demonstrated by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). These results predict that HIV-1 sequences may be included in the primary transcripts of host genes as part of rapidly degraded introns. RT-PCR experiments confirmed the presence of HIV-1 sequences within transcripts initiating upstream of the HIV-1 transcription start site. Taken together, these results demonstrate that HIV-1 genomes reside within actively transcribed host genes in resting CD4+ T cells in vivo.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
79 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Productive transcription of the integrated HIV-1 provirus is restricted by cellular factors that inhibit RNA polymerase II elongation. The viral Tat protein overcomes this by recruiting a general elongation factor, P-TEFb, to the TAR RNA element that forms at the 5' end of nascent viral transcripts. P-TEFb exists in multiple complexes in cells, and its core consists of a kinase, Cdk9, and a regulatory subunit, either Cyclin T1 or Cyclin T2. Tat binds directly to Cyclin T1 and thereby targets the Cyclin T1/P-TEFb complex that phosphorylates the CTD of RNA polymerase II and the negative factors that inhibit elongation, resulting in efficient transcriptional elongation. P-TEFb is tightly regulated in cells infected by HIV-1-CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. A number of mechanisms have been identified that inhibit P-TEFb in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocytes, including miRNAs that repress Cyclin T1 protein expression and dephosphorylation of residue Thr186 in the Cdk9 T-loop. These repressive mechanisms are overcome upon T cell activation and macrophage differentiation when the permissivity for HIV-1 replication is greatly increased. This review will summarize what is currently known about mechanisms that regulate P-TEFb and how this regulation impacts HIV-1 replication and latency.
    Biology 01/2012; 1(1):94-115.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) of HIV infection suppresses viral replication. Yet if ART is stopped, virus re-emerges due to the persistence of infected cells. We evaluated the contribution of infected-cell proliferation and sites of proviral integration to HIV persistence. 534 HIV integration sites (IS) and 63 adjacent HIV env sequences were derived from three study participants over 11.3 to 12.7 years of ART. Each participant had identical viral sequences integrated at the same position in multiple cells, demonstrating infected-cell proliferation. Integrations were overrepresented in genes associated with cancer and favored in 12 genes across multiple participants. Over time on ART, a greater proportion of persisting proviruses were in proliferating cells. HIV integration into specific genes may promote proliferation of HIV-infected cells, slowing viral decay during ART.
    Science (New York, N.Y.). 07/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The concept of eradication of the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) from infected patients has gained much attention in the last few years. While combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy (c-ART) has been extremely effective in suppressing viral replication, it is not curative. This is due to the presence of a reservoir of latent HIV infected cells, which persist in the presence of c-ART. Recently, pharmaceutical approaches have focused on the development of molecules able to induce HIV-1 replication from latently infected cells in order to render them susceptible to viral cytopathic effects and host immune responses. Alternative pathways and transcription complexes function to regulate the activity of the HIV promoter and might serve as molecular targets for compounds to activate latent HIV. A combined therapy coupling various depressors and activators will likely be the most effective in promoting HIV replication while avoiding pleiotropic effects at the cellular level. Moreover, in light of differences among HIV subtypes and variability in integration sites, the combination of multiple agents targeting multiple pathways will increase likelihood of therapeutic effectiveness and prevent mutational escape. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms that can be targeted to induce HIV activation focusing on potential combinatorial approaches.
    Viruses. 01/2014; 6(11):4581-4608.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
10 Downloads
Available from
Jun 11, 2014