Resting CD4+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals carry integrated HIV-1 genomes within actively transcribed host genes.
ABSTRACT Resting CD4+ T-cell populations from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals include cells with integrated HIV-1 DNA. In individuals showing suppression of viremia during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), resting CD4+ T-cell populations do not produce virus without cellular activation. To determine whether the nonproductive nature of the infection in resting CD4+ T cells is due to retroviral integration into chromosomal regions that are repressive for transcription, we used inverse PCR to characterize the HIV-1 integration sites in vivo in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART. Of 74 integration sites from 16 patients, 93% resided within transcription units, usually within introns. Integration was random with respect to transcriptional orientation relative to the host gene and with respect to position within the host gene. Of integration sites within well-characterized genes, 91% (51 of 56) were in genes that were actively expressed in resting CD4+ T cells, as directly demonstrated by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). These results predict that HIV-1 sequences may be included in the primary transcripts of host genes as part of rapidly degraded introns. RT-PCR experiments confirmed the presence of HIV-1 sequences within transcripts initiating upstream of the HIV-1 transcription start site. Taken together, these results demonstrate that HIV-1 genomes reside within actively transcribed host genes in resting CD4+ T cells in vivo.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Kara Lassen, May 22, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Almost 30 years after its initial discovery, infection with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) remains incurable and the virus persists due to reservoirs of latently infected CD4+ memory T-cells and sanctuary sites within the infected individual where drug penetration is poor. Reactivating latent viruses has been a key strategy to completely eliminate the virus from the host but many difficulties and unanswered questions remain. In this review, the latest developments in HIV-persistence and latency research are presented.Journal of General Virology 01/2013; 94(Pt 5). DOI:10.1099/vir.0.049296-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Long-lived latent HIV-infected cells lead to the rebound of virus replication following antiretroviral treatment interruption and present a major barrier to eliminating HIV infection. These latent reservoirs, which include quiescent memory T cells and tissue-resident macrophages, represent a subset of cells with decreased or inactive proviral transcription. HIV proviral transcription is regulated at multiple levels including transcription initiation, polymerase recruitment, transcription elongation, and chromatin organization. How these biochemical processes are coordinated and their potential role in repressing HIV transcription along with establishing and maintaining latency are reviewed.06/2012; 2012:614120. DOI:10.1155/2012/614120
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Integration of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome into the host chromosome is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. The highly conserved cytosine-adenine (CA) dinucleotide sequence immediately upstream of the cleavage site is crucial for integrase (IN) activity. As this viral enzyme has an important role early in the HIV-1 replication cycle, interference with the IN substrate has become an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrated that a designed zinc finger protein (ZFP) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) targets the 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle junctions of HIV-1 DNA with nanomolar affinity. We report now that 2LTRZFP-GFP stably transduced into 293T cells interfered with the expression of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped lentiviral red fluorescent protein (RFP), as shown by the suppression of RFP expression. We also used a third-generation lentiviral vector and pCEP4 expression vector to deliver the 2LTRZFP-GFP transgene into human T-lymphocytic cells, and a stable cell line for long-term expression studies was selected for HIV-1 challenge. HIV-1 integration and replication were inhibited as measured by Alu-gag real-time PCR and p24 antigen assay. In addition, the molecular activity of 2LTRZFP-GFP was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results were confirmed by Alu-gag real-time PCR for integration interference. We suggest that the expression of 2LTRZFP-GFP limited viral integration on intracellular immunization, and that it has potential for use in HIV gene therapy in the future.Human gene therapy 03/2012; 23(9):932-42. DOI:10.1089/hum.2011.124 · 3.62 Impact Factor