Global analyses of sumoylated proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Induction of protein sumoylation by cellular stresses.

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, 92093, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 08/2004; 279(31):32262-8. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M404173200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We have undertaken a global analysis of sumoylated proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by tandem mass spectrometry. Exposure of cells to oxidative and ethanol stresses caused large increases in protein sumoylation. A large number of new sumoylated proteins were identified in untreated, hydrogen peroxide-treated, and ethanol-treated cells. These proteins are known to be involved in diverse cellular processes, including gene transcription, protein translation, DNA replication, chromosome segregation, metabolic processes, and stress responses. Additionally, the known enzymes, including E1, E2, and E3 of the sumoylation cascade were found to be auto-sumoylated. Taken together, these results show that protein sumoylation is broadly involved in many cellular functions and this mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach is useful in studying the regulation of protein sumoylation in the cells.

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    ABSTRACT: Small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMO) are evolutionarily conserved ubiquitin-like proteins that regulate several cellular processes including cell cycle progression, intracellular trafficking, protein degradation and apoptosis. Despite the importance of protein SUMOylation in different biological pathways, the global identification of acceptor sites in complex cell extracts remains a challenge. Here we generate a monoclonal antibody that enriches for peptides containing SUMO remnant chains following tryptic digestion. We identify 954 SUMO3-modified lysine residues on 538 proteins and profile by quantitative proteomics the dynamic changes of protein SUMOylation following proteasome inhibition. More than 86% of these SUMOylation sites have not been reported previously, including 5 sites on the tumour suppressor parafibromin ( CDC73). The modification of CDC73 at K136 affects its nuclear retention within PML nuclear bodies on proteasome inhibition. In contrast, a CDC73 K136R mutant translocates to the cytoplasm under the same conditions, further demonstrating the effectiveness of our method to characterize the dynamics of lysine SUMOylation.
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