Twelve patients with chronic critical limb ischemia in whom a spinal cord stimulation (SCS) system had been implanted for at least one year had increased microvascular flow and achieved healing of trophic acral lesions. After switching off the system, the clinical improvement persisted for 10 days and the neurohormonal pattern showed high plasma values of beta-endorphin and Met-enkephalin, normal dynorphin B, endothelin-1 and catecholamines, and low nitric oxide. Met-enkephalin levels were further increased (P < 0.01) immediately after switching on the electrical stimulation again. The persistence of high plasma opioid levels after switching off the spinal cord stimulation explains the absence of subjective complaints and suggests an involvement of opioids in the regulation and improvement of the microcirculation.
"Results from a clinical study show that opioid peptides are released during SCS. In that study, plasma Met-enkephalin increased during SCS, indicating an involvement of opioids in the regulation and improvement of the microcirculation by SCS (Fontana et al, 2004). However, clinically there is little or no evidence that opioids are involved in the SCS effects (Eliasson et al., 1998; Meyerson and Linderoth, 2000) "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a widely used clinical technique to treat ischemic pain in peripheral, cardiac and cerebral vascular diseases. The use of this treatment advanced rapidly during the late 80's and 90's, particularly in Europe. Although the clinical benefits of SCS are clear and the success rate remains high, the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. SCS at lumbar spinal segments (L2-L3) produces vasodilation in the lower limbs and feet which is mediated by antidromic activation of sensory fibers and decreased sympathetic outflow. SCS at thoracic spinal segments (T1-T2) induces several benefits including pain relief, reduction in both frequency and severity of angina attacks, and reduced short-acting nitrate intake. The benefits to the heart are not likely due to an increase, or redistribution of local blood flow, rather, they are associated with SCS-induced myocardial protection and normalization of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system. At somewhat lower cervical levels (C3-C6), SCS induces increased blood flow in the upper extremities. SCS at the upper cervical spinal segments (C1-C2) increased cerebral blood flow, which is associated with a decrease in sympathetic activity, an increase in vasomotor center activity and a release of neurohumoral factors. This review will summarize the basic science studies that have contributed to our understanding about mechanisms through which SCS produces beneficial effects when used in the treatment of vascular diseases. Furthermore, this review will particularly focus on the antidromic mechanisms of SCS-induced vasodilation in the lower limbs and feet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied circulating levels of endothelin-1, catecholamines and nitric oxide after a mental arithmetic test in 14 patients with early ischemic lesions of the extremities due to systemic sclerosis and slightly impaired peripheral vascular flow. The test induced an increase (P<0.01) in blood pressure, heart rate, endothelin-1 and catecholamine levels, whereas it did not change the low basal levels of nitric oxide. In healthy subjects (n=20) the test significantly (P<0.01) decreased endothelin-1 without affecting nitric oxide. The low basal levels of nitric oxide and the high plasma concentration of endothelin-1 after psychological stress cannot be explained by an impaired release from the limited ischemic lesions alone. This suggests a diffuse microvascular derangement that aggravates the course of peripheral microvascular ischemic lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is the 27th consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning over 30 years of research. It summarizes papers published during 2004 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior, and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia; stress and social status; tolerance and dependence; learning and memory; eating and drinking; alcohol and drugs of abuse; sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology; mental illness and mood; seizures and neurologic disorders; electrical-related activity and neurophysiology; general activity and locomotion; gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions; cardiovascular responses; respiration and thermoregulation; and immunological responses.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.