Plasmablastic lymphoma was initially described as a variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the oral cavity of HIV+ patients and characterized by immunoblastic morphology and a plasma cell phenotype. However, other lymphomas may exhibit similar morphologic and immunophenotypic features. To determine the significance of plasmablastic differentiation in DLBCL and examine the heterogeneity of lymphomas with these characteristics, we examined 50 DLBCLs with low/absent CD20/CD79a and an immunophenotype indicative of terminal B-cell differentiation (MUM1/CD38/CD138/EMA-positive). We were able to define several distinct subgroups. Twenty-three tumors were classified as plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral mucosa type and showed a monomorphic population of immunoblasts with no or minimal plasmacytic differentiation. Most patients were HIV+ and EBV was positive in 74%. Eleven (48%) cases presented in the oral mucosa, but the remaining presented in other extranodal (39%) or nodal (13%) sites. Sixteen cases were classified as plasmablastic lymphoma with plasmacytic differentiation. These were composed predominantly of immunoblasts and plasmablasts, but in addition exhibited more differentiation to mature plasma cells. Only 33% were HIV+, EBV was detected in 62%, and 44% had nodal presentation. Nine cases, morphologically indistinguishable from the previous group, were secondary extramedullary plasmablastic tumors occurring in patients with prior or synchronous plasma cell neoplasms, classified as multiple myeloma in 7 of the 9. Two additional neoplasms were an HHV-8+ extracavitary variant of primary effusion lymphoma and an ALK+ DLBCL. HHV-8 was examined in 39 additional cases, and was negative in all. In conclusion, DLBCLs with plasmablastic differentiation are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with different clinicopathological characteristics that may correspond to different entities.
"Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and rapidly progressive variety of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that was originally reported exclusively in the jaw and oral mucosa of male-predominant HIV-positive patients (Delecluse et al. 1997; Colomo et al. 2004; Yotsumoto et al. 2009). Its hallmarks include extensive local invasion, rapid dissemination and recalcitrance to treatment (Colomo et al. 2004; Scheper et al. 2005; Valenzuela et al. 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare and aggressive variant of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The prognosis of PBL patients is poor. The majority of patients succumb to a fulminant disease course, with most dying in the first year after diagnosis. The small number of HIV-negative PBL cases reported in the literature to date is composed of single case reports and small case series. Consequently, the natural history of the disease in HIV-negative individuals and the optimum treatment are not well characterized. Intensive induction chemotherapy has been associated with marked improved overall survival. However the optimal regimen has not been defined. We describe the third case of PBL of the maxillary sinus which occurred in a 24-year old HIV-negative man. We outline the clinicopathological features and report success using a hyper-CVAD regimen with 6 cycles and consolidation radiation therapy yielding a complete remission of four years.
"Positive staining for plasma cell markers such as VS38c, CD38, MUM-1, and CD138 indicates a phenotype akin to plasma cells [8, 9]. Newer B-lineage markers (e.g., OCT.2 and BOB.1) may prove useful in determining a B-cell origin in plasmablastic lymphomas [10, 11]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare malignancy, associated with HIV or other immunocompromised conditions. The lesion constituted a new subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and proposed a distinct entity based on its basic morphology, its clinical behaviour involving predominantly extramedullary sites (particularly oral cavity), and its limited antigenic phenotype data suggesting plasmacytic differentiation. Authors here report a case of apparently healthy individual aged 35 years, presenting one-month history of swelling associated with loosened teeth around upper anteriors. Following incisional biopsy, routine histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, the diagnosis of plasmablastic lymphoma was given.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma comprising of greater than 30% of adult non-Hodgkin Lymphomas. DLBCL represents a diverse set of lymphomas, defined as diffuse proliferation of large B lymphoid cells. Numerous cytogenetic studies including karyotypes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), as well as morphological, biological, clinical, microarray and sequencing technologies have attempted to categorize DLBCL into morphological variants, molecular and immunophenotypic subgroups, as well as distinct disease entities. Despite such efforts, most lymphoma remains undistinguishable and falls into DLBCL, not otherwise specified (DLBCL-NOS). The advent of microarray-based studies (chromosome, RNA, gene expression, etc) has provided a plethora of high-resolution data that could potentially facilitate the finer classification of DLBCL. This review covers the microarray data currently published for DLBCL. We will focus on these types of data; 1) array based CGH; 2) classical CGH; and 3) gene expression profiling studies. The aims of this review were three-fold: (1) to catalog chromosome loci that are present in at least 20% or more of distinct DLBCL subtypes; a detailed list of gains and losses for different subtypes was generated in a table form to illustrate specific chromosome loci affected in selected subtypes; (2) to determine common and distinct copy number alterations among the different subtypes and based on this information, characteristic and similar chromosome loci for the different subtypes were depicted in two separate chromosome ideograms; and, (3) to list re-classified subtypes and those that remained indistinguishable after review of the microarray data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to compile and review available literatures on microarray analysis data and their practical utility in classifying DLBCL subtypes.
Although conventional cytogenetic methods such as Karyotypes and FISH have played a major role in classification schemes of lymphomas, better classification models are clearly needed to further understanding the biology, disease outcome and therapeutic management of DLBCL. In summary, microarray data reviewed here can provide better subtype specific classifications models for DLBCL.
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