Valganciclovir for the prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease in pediatric liver transplant recipients.
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ABSTRACT: Valganciclovir is a prodrug of ganciclovir which has been developed for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS. Oral valganciclovir is rapidly absorbed and hydrolysed to ganciclovir. The oral bioavailability of ganciclovir after oral valganciclovir administration is high. Oral valganciclovir 900 mg provides a daily exposure of ganciclovir comparable to that of intravenous ganciclovir 5 mg/kg. A single, randomised, nonblind study indicated that oral valganciclovir (900mg twice daily for 3 weeks then 900 mg once daily) and intravenous ganciclovir (5 mg/kg twice daily for 3 weeks then 5 mg/kg once daily) were equally effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed CMV retinitis in 160 patients with AIDS. Valganciclovir appears to have a similar tolerability profile to intravenous ganciclovir during induction therapy in patients with AIDS and newly diagnosed CMV retinitis. During maintenance therapy with valganciclovir, the most commonly reported adverse events included neutropenia, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal (including diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain), fever, headache, insomnia, peripheral neuropathy, paraesthesia and retinal detachment.Drugs 02/2001; 61(8):1145-50 ; discussion 1151-2. DOI:10.2165/00003495-200161080-00013 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Herpes virus infections, particularly those caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), lead to significant and, sometimes severe, clinical problems for the immunocompromised host. As effective agents have become available, several treatment and prevention strategies have evolved over the past decade, first in intra-venous form and more recently, as oral preparations. Valganciclovir, the valine ester of ganciclovir, is an orally administered, potent, antiviral agent active against all herpes viruses. When taken orally, valganciclovir has much-improved bioavailability compared with oral ganciclovir and achieves ganciclovir exposures similar to intravenous ganciclovir. Clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of valganciclovir for the treatment of new AIDS-associated CMV retinitis showed equivalency to intravenous ganciclovir and prevented progression of quiescent disease. In solid organ recipients, once-daily valganciclovir has been proven equivalent to oral ganciclovir for the prevention of CMV infection. The high bioavailability and convenient dosing formulation make valganciclovir an attractive option for these indications.Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 10/2004; 5(9):2007-16. DOI:10.1517/146565220.127.116.117 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Late cytomegalovirus disease after completion of prophylactic therapy occurs in 5-21% of renal allograft recipients within the first year post-transplantation. Identifying patients at risk for late infection is clinically difficult; prolonged cytomegalovirus (CMV) monitoring is costly and cumbersome as follow-up intervals lengthen. We performed a prospective 1 year study in 54 de novo renal recipients to assess the minimum CMV monitoring frequency for identifying patients at risk. CMV DNA PCR monitoring on the last day, and again 2 weeks after conclusion of oral ganciclovir prophylaxis, seemed sufficient for identifying recipients at risk for developing clinically relevant late CMV disease and for whom closer clinical follow-up is warranted.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 04/2005; 55(3):391-4. DOI:10.1093/jac/dki031 · 5.44 Impact Factor