Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is being successfully used to treat a variety of malignant and nonmalignant disorders. This therapy has resulted in an increasing number of survivors who are at risk for adverse long-term outcomes, including the development of second and subsequent malignant neoplasms. We review the incidence and spectrum of posttransplantation malignancies and discuss risk factors and future directions for research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conditioning including total body/lymphoid irradiation is widely used to prevent graft rejection in patients with refractory severe aplastic anemia (SAA) undergoing hemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from alternative donors and or after graft manipulation. To reduce regimen-related toxicity we transplanted three children with refractory SAA after conditioning with radiotherapy-free regimens. Conditioning included fludarabine 175-180 mg/m2 in all patients. In addition, patient 1 (failing two previous grafts) received thiotepa 10 mg/kg and Campath-1H 60 mg/m2; patient 2 cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg, thiotepa 15 mg/kg and OKT-3 0.1 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks; and patient 3 cyclophosphamide 120 and ATG 90 mg/kg. Stem cell source was unmanipulated marrow from the same unrelated donor as for the two previous transplantations in patient 1 and CD34+-purified peripheral blood stem cells from an HLA-matched unrelated donor and from the haploidentical mother in patients 2 and 3. Only patient 1 received graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil. Follow-up is now 30, 51, and 15 months. None of the patients developed GVHD. All patients have normal counts with complete donor chimerism. Fludarabine-based conditioning is powerfully immunosuppressive and may be used for children with refractory SAA undergoing HCT from alternative donors even after rejection following previous HCT.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 04/2005; 35(6):591-4. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1704792 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence, risk factors and prognosis for solid tumors after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Japan, 809 patients who had received HSCT between 1981 and 2000 were retrospectively analyzed. In all, 19 newly diagnosed secondary cancers were observed. The risk for cancer development was 2.8 times as high as that for expected cases. The cumulative incidence ratios at 5 and 10 years were 1.9 and 4.2%, respectively. The risk was significantly elevated for buccal cavity cancer (standard incidental ratio (SIR), 44.42: 95% confidence interval (CI) 17.86-91.51), esophageal cancer (SIR, 22.36: 95% CI 6.09-57.25), and cervical cancer (SIR, 8.58: 95% CI 1.04-31.01). Of 15 patients who developed solid cancers following allografting, 12 had chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and all 10 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal cavity or esophagus had chronic GVHD. On multivariate analysis, extensive chronic GVHD and age over 45 years at the time of transplantation were associated with a higher risk for solid cancers. In all, 17 patients received therapy for secondary cancers, nine of whom are still alive and the 5-year probability of survival from the diagnosis is 42.8%. Our data suggest that early detection of secondary cancers is very important in prolonging overall survival.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 08/2005; 36(2):115-21. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1705020 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).
The impact of patient-, disease-, treatment-, and toxicity-related factors on risk of BCC and SCC was determined in a retrospective cohort study of 4,810 patients who received allogeneic HCT and who survived for at least 100 days.
Among allogeneic HCT recipients, 237 developed at least one skin or mucosal cancer (BCC, n = 158; SCC, n = 95). Twenty-year cumulative incidences of BCC and SCC were 6.5% and 3.4%, respectively. Total-body irradiation was a significant risk factor for BCC (P = .003), most strongly among patients younger than 18 years old at HCT (P = .02, interaction). Light-skinned patients had an increased risk of BCC (P = .01). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) increased the risk of SCC (P = .02), whereas chronic GVHD increased the risk of both BCC (P = .01) and SCC (P < .001).
This analysis suggests that immutable factors, such as age and complexion, have a significant impact on BCC and SCC. However, specific treatment (radiotherapy) and transplantation complications (GVHD) may modify that risk. These additional risk factors suggest the contribution of immunologic mechanism DNA and tissue repair in the development of BCC and SCC. We confirm previous reports that exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of BCC but not SCC. Survivors of HCT should be monitored for the development of BCC and SCC and use preventive strategies.
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