Article

Statins upregulate PCSK9, the gene encoding the proprotein convertase neural apoptosis-regulated convertase-1 implicated in familial hypercholesterolemia.

Laboratory of Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerosis Research Group, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology (Impact Factor: 6.34). 09/2004; 24(8):1454-9. DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000134621.14315.43
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neural apoptosis-regulated convertase (NARC)-1 is the newest member of the proprotein convertase family implicated in the cleavage of a variety of protein precursors. The NARC-1 gene, PCSK9, has been identified recently as the third locus implicated in autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH). The 2 other known genes implicated in ADH encode the low-density lipoprotein receptor and apolipoprotein B. As an approach toward the elucidation of the physiological role(s) of NARC-1, we studied its transcriptional regulation.
Using quantitative RT-PCR, we assessed NARC-1 regulation under conditions known to regulate genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells and in human primary hepatocytes. We found that NARC-1 expression was strongly induced by statins in a dose-dependent manner and that this induction was efficiently reversed by mevalonate. NARC-1 mRNA level was increased by cholesterol depletion but insensitive to liver X receptor activation. Human, mouse, and rat PCSK9 promoters contain 2 typical conserved motifs for cholesterol regulation: a sterol regulatory element (SRE) and an Sp1 site.
PCSK9 regulation is typical of that of the genes implicated in lipoprotein metabolism. In vivo, PCSK9 is probably a target of SRE-binding protein (SREBP)-2.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
110 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PCSK9 is a promising target for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. A Quantitative Systems Pharmacology model of the mechanisms of action of statin and anti-PCSK9 therapies was developed to predict low density lipoprotein (LDL) changes in response to anti-PCSK9 mAb for different treatment protocols and patient subpopulations. Mechanistic interactions and cross-regulation of LDL, LDL receptor, and PCSK9 were modeled, and numerous virtual subjects were developed and validated against clinical data. Simulations predict a slightly greater maximum percent reduction in LDL cholesterol (LDLc) when anti-PCSK9 is administered on statin background therapy compared to as a monotherapy. The difference results primarily from higher PCSK9 levels in patients on statin background. However, higher PCSK9 levels are also predicted to increase clearance of anti-PCSK9, resulting in a faster rebound of LDLc. Simulations of subjects with impaired LDL receptor (LDLR) function predict compromised anti-PCSK9 responses in patients such as homozygous familial hypercholesterolemics, whose functional LDLR is below 10% of normal.
    CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 11/2014; 3:e149.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has emerged as a promising treatment target to lower serum cholesterol, a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. Gain-of-function mutations of PCSK9 are associated with hypercholesterolemia and increased risk of cardiovascular events. Conversely, loss-of-function mutations cause low-plasma LDL-C levels and a reduction of cardiovascular risk without known unwanted effects on individual health. Experimental studies have revealed that PCSK9 reduces the hepatic uptake of LDL-C by increasing the endosomal and lysosomal degradation of LDL receptors (LDLR). A number of clinical studies have demonstrated that inhibition of PCSK9 alone and in addition to statins potently reduces serum LDL-C concentrations. This review summarizes the current data on the regulation of PCSK9, its molecular function in lipid homeostasis and the emerging evidence on the extra-hepatic effects of PCSK9.
    Basic research in cardiology. 03/2015; 110(2):463.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulatory ligand that terminates the lifecycle of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) thus affecting plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Recent evidence shows that in addition to the straightforward mechanism of action, there are more complex interactions between PCSK9, LDLR and plasma lipoprotein levels, including: (a) the presence of both parallel and reciprocal regulation of surface LDLR and plasma PCSK9; (b) a correlation between PCSK9 and LDL-C levels dependent not only on the fact that PCSK9 removes hepatic LDLR, but also due to the fact that up to 40% of plasma PCSK9 is physically associated with LDL; and (c) an association between plasma PCSK9 production and the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.
    Atherosclerosis 12/2014; · 3.71 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
4 Downloads
Available from
Jul 29, 2014