Photoreceptor degeneration in Pro23His and S334ter transgenic rats.
Department of Anatomy and Histology and Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.Advances in experimental medicine and biology (impact factor: 1.09). 02/2003; 533:297-302.
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ABSTRACT: In retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a majority of causative mutations affect genes solely expressed in rods; however, cone degeneration inevitably follows rod cell loss. Following transplantation and in vitro studies, we demonstrated the role of photoreceptor cell paracrine interactions and identified a Rod-derived Cone Viability Factor (RdCVF), which increases cone survival. In order to establish the clinical relevance of such mechanism, we assessed the functional benefit afforded by the injection of this factor in a frequent type of rhodopsin mutation, the P23H rat. In this model of autosomal dominant RP, RdCVF expression decreases in parallel with primary rod degeneration, which is followed by cone loss. RdCVF protein injections induced an increase in cone cell number and, more important, a further increase in the corresponding electroretinogram (ERG). These results indicate that RdCVF can not only rescue cones but also preserve significantly their function. Interestingly, the higher amplitude of the functional versus the survival effect of RdCVF on cones indicates that RdCVF is acting more directly on cone function. The demonstration at the functional level of the therapeutic potential of RdCVF in the most frequent of dominant RP mutations paves the way toward the use of RdCVF for preserving central vision in many RP patients.Molecular Therapy 04/2009; 17(5):787-95. · 6.87 Impact Factor
Article: Selective Activation of ATF6 and PERK Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling Pathways Prevent Mutant Rhodopsin Accumulation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many rhodopsin mutations that cause retinitis pigmentosa produce misfolded rhodopsin proteins that are retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cause photoreceptor cell death. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) control intracellular signaling pathways that maintain ER homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate how ATF6 and PERK signaling affected misfolded rhodopsin in cells, which could identify new molecular therapies to treat retinal diseases associated with ER protein misfolding. To examine the effect of ATF6 on rhodopsin, wild-type (WT) or mutant rhodopsins were expressed in cells expressing inducible human ATF6f, the transcriptional activator domain of ATF6. Induction of ATF6f synthesis rapidly activated downstream genes. To examine PERK's effect on rhodopsin, WT or mutant rhodopsins were expressed in cells expressing a genetically altered PERK protein, Fv2E-PERK. Addition of the dimerizing molecule (AP20187) rapidly activated Fv2E-PERK and downstream genes. By use of these strategies, it was examined how selective ATF6 or PERK signaling affected the fate of WT and mutant rhodopsins. ATF6 significantly reduced T17M, P23H, Y178C, C185R, D190G, K296E, and S334ter rhodopsin protein levels in the cells with minimal effects on monomeric WT rhodopsin protein levels. By contrast, the PERK pathway reduced both levels of WT, mutant rhodopsins, and many other proteins in the cell. This study indicates that selectively activating ATF6 or PERK prevents mutant rhodopsin from accumulating in cells. ATF6 signaling may be especially useful in treating retinal degenerative diseases arising from rhodopsin misfolding by preferentially clearing mutant rhodopsin and abnormal rhodopsin aggregates.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 09/2012; 53(11):7159-66. · 3.43 Impact Factor
Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/2008; 613:377-82. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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