Research over the past decade has identified some characteristics of children who have GID, particularly boys, that may have a biologic basis. Corresponding studies of girls have been fewer in number, largely because of problems in sample size that limit statistical power. In many respects, it was easier to rule out candidate biologic explanations, such as the influence of gross anomalies in prenatal hormonal exposure, than to identify the relevant biologic mechanisms that are involved in affecting sex-dimorphic behavioral differentiation but not sex-dimorphic genital differentiation. The identification of new potential biologic markers may open up avenues for further empiric inquiry.
"Çocukluk çağında karşıt cinsiyet davranışı göstermenin kız çocuklarında çok daha yaygın olduğu bildirilmiş olsa da klinik başvuru oranları erkek çocuklarda kızlardan daha fazladır (Özsungur 2010). On iki yaşın altındaki çocukların klinik başvurularında erkek/kadın oranı 6/1 ile 3/1 arasında iken (Zucker 2004), 12 yaş üzerinde bu oran 1/1'e yakındır (Coleman ve ark. 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiological data is generally obtained from the patients that applied for gender reassignment surgery, it is known that transsexualism is not seen as rarely as it was estimated in the past and should be evaluated in detail because of its psychological and social consequences. Etiology remains to be unclear and biological and psychosocial factors are thought to be responsible for its development. Gender identity stabilizes approximately in 3-4 ages and it is impossible to change it after these ages. For this reason the aim of treatment approaches is to improve the conformity of individuals to their identity and life, but not to change the gender identity. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health [WPATH] published a guideline including standards of care [SOC] and SOC provide clinical guidance in follow-up and treatment of transsexual individuals. There is a detailed code in civil law about gender reassignment but when this code implemented strictly, the use of it is very limited and it is clear that a new arrangement is needed in this issue.
"Gender identity is an integrated element of self-concept that has important implications not only on an individual's gender development but also his or her psychological adjustment   . Traditionally, researchers defined gender identity as one's identification and acceptance of him or herself  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001) in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to "Felt Pressure" and "Intergroup Bias" in the original model. The third factor "Gender Compatibility" appeared to be a combination of "Gender Typicality" and "Gender Contentment" in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.
The Scientific World Journal 06/2012; 2012(4):595813. DOI:10.1100/2012/595813 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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