Gender identity development and issues.
ABSTRACT This article focuses on the psychosexual development of children and adolescents who have sex-typed behavioral patterns that correspond to the diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder, as defined in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The author provides an update on phenomenology and diagnosis, associated behavior problems, developmental course, biologic and psychosocial influences, and treatment and ethical issues.
SourceAvailable from: Stephen B LevineSex Roles 01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11199-013-0341-9 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Almost 50 years of clinical observation and research on children with gender identity disorders have provided useful information on phenomenology, diagnostic and assessment procedures, associated psychopathology, tests of etiological hypotheses, and natural history. In contrast, the best practice guidelines and evidence-based therapeutics have lagged sorely behind these other domains. Accordingly, the therapist must rely on the “clinical wisdom” that has accumulated and to utilize largely untested case formulation conceptual models to inform treatment approaches and decisions. Because of this state of affairs, dogmatic assertions about the best practice should be avoided.Neuropsychiatrie de l Enfance et de l Adolescence 09/2008; 56(6):350–357. DOI:10.1016/j.neurenf.2008.05.010