Mapping phosphorylation sites: a new strategy based on the use of isotopically labelled DTT and mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT Phosphoproteomics, nowadays, represents a front line in functional proteomics as testified by the number of papers recently appearing in the literature. In an attempt to improve and simplify the methods so far suggested we have set up a simple isotope-coded approach to label and quantitate phospho-Ser/-Thr residues in protein mixtures. First of all, after appropriate oxidation of cysteine/cystine residues followed by tryptic hydrolysis, we have optimised and simplified the beta-elimination reaction to get the corresponding alkene moiety from the phosphate esters. This was achieved by (a) separating the elimination reaction from the addition reaction, (b) the use of Ba(OH)(2) as alkali reagent and (c) its further elimination by the simple addition of solid CO(2) to the peptide mixture. The Michael reaction was then performed, after the removal of BaCO(3) by centrifugation, by adding dithiothreitol (DTT) to the peptide mixture. Finally, the direct purification of the modified phosphopeptides was performed on a thiol-sepharose column. The availability of fully deuterated DTT, introducing a 6 Da difference with respect to the non-deuterated species, allows quantitation of the differential extent of signalling modification when analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The entire procedure has been set up by using bovine alpha-casein, and resulted in the identification of all the phosphorylated tryptic peptides, including the tetraphosphorylated peptides, which escaped all previously reported procedures
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ABSTRACT: Modification through beta-elimination has proven to be a reliable first step in the approach for enrichment of serine/threonine-phopshorylated (Ser-/Thr) peptides. However, under harsh basic conditions, Ser-/Thr-glycosylated peptides are susceptible to beta-elimination as well. Therefore, we have optimized these conditions to achieve a beta-elimination that is highly selective for phosphorylated peptides. This is the first report of selective beta-elimination and enrichment of phosphorylated peptides in the presence of glycosylated peptides.PROTEOMICS 01/2007; 6(24):6394-9. · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation is the most widely studied posttranslational modification (PTM) and is an important regulatory mechanism used during cellular responses to external stimuli. The kinases and phosphatases that regulate protein phosphorylation are known to be affected in many human diseases. Cigarette smoking causes cardiovascular disease (CVD). Endothelial cells play a pivotal role in CVD initiation and development; however, there have been limited investigations of the specific signaling cascades and protein phosphorylations activated by cigarette smoke in endothelial cells. The purpose of this research was to better understand the differential protein phosphorylation in endothelial cells stimulated with extracts of cigarette smoke total particulate matter (CS-TPM) in vitro. Human microvascular endothelial cells were exposed in vitro to CS-TPM at concentrations that were shown to cause endothelial cell dysfunction. The phosphorylated proteins were isolated using phosphoprotein-specific chromatography, followed by enzymatic digestion and nano-flow capillary liquid chromatography (ncap-LC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. This study putatively identified 94 proteins in human microvascular endothelial cells that were differentially bound to a phosphoprotein-specific chromatography column following exposure to CS-TPM suggesting differential phosphorylation. Pathway analysis has also been conducted and confirmations of several observations have been made using immunoaffinity-based techniques (e.g., Western blotting).Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 08/2009; 394(6):1609-20. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To date, only a handful of phosphoproteins with important biological functions have been identified and characterized in oral fluids, and these include some of the abundant protein constituents of saliva. Whole saliva (WS) samples were trypsin digested, followed by chemical derivatization using dithiothreitol (DTT) of the phospho-serine/threonine-containing peptides. The DTT-phosphopeptides were enriched by covalent disulfide-thiol interchange chromatography and analysis by nanoflow liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The specificity of DTT chemical derivatization was evaluated separately under different base-catalyzed conditions with NaOH and Ba(OH)(2), blocking cysteine residues by iodoacetamide and enzymatic O-deglycosylation prior to DTT reaction. Further analysis of WS samples that were subjected to either of these conditions provided supporting evidence for phosphoprotein identifications. The combined chemical strategies and mass spectrometric analyses identified 65 phosphoproteins in WS; of these, 28 were based on two or more peptide identification criteria with high confidence and 37 were based on a single phosphopeptide identification. Most of the identified proteins (∼80%) were previously unknown phosphoprotein components. This study represents the first large-scale documentation of phosphoproteins of WS. The origins and identity of WS phosphoproteome suggest significant implications for both basic science and the development of novel biomarkers/diagnostic tools for systemic and oral disease states.Analytical Biochemistry 12/2010; 407(1):19-33. · 2.58 Impact Factor