Secondhand tobacco smoke in public places in Latin America, 2002-2003

Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Md 21205, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 07/2004; 291(22):2741-5. DOI: 10.1001/jama.291.22.2741
Source: PubMed


The success of measures to restrict smoking in indoor environments and the intensity of enforcement vary among countries around the world. In 2001, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) launched the Smoke-Free Americas Initiative to build capacity to achieve smoke-free environments in Latin America and the Caribbean.
To assess secondhand smoke concentrations in public places in the capital cities of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay in conjunction with the Smoke-Free Americas Initiative.
Multicountry assessment of vapor-phase nicotine concentrations using a common protocol in all 7 Latin American countries. A total of 633 sampling devices were placed for 7 to 14 days in 1 hospital, 2 secondary schools, 1 city government building, 1 airport (2 in Argentina), and restaurants and bars in each country.
Concentrations of airborne nicotine.
Airborne nicotine was detected in most (94%) of the locations surveyed. By country, Argentina and Uruguay had the highest median concentrations in most environments (eg, in hospitals: 1.33 [interquartile range [IQR], 0.51-3.12] microg/m3 and 0.8 [IQR, 0.30-1.69] microg/m3, respectively). Overall, bars and restaurants had the highest median concentrations (3.65 [IQR, 1.55-5.12] microg/m3 and 1.24 [IQR, 0.41-2.48] microg/m3, respectively). Nicotine concentrations were also found in a number of key, sentinel buildings, including 95% (155/163) of hospital samples (in the physicians' and nurses' stations the median was 0.27 [IQR, 0.02-1.94] microg/m3), schools, government buildings, and/or airports in most countries.
The finding of airborne nicotine in critical locations in Latin America provides a basis for enforcing smoke-free initiatives and for strengthening the protection of the public from unwanted exposure to secondhand smoke.

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    • "Previous studies evaluating SHS exposure have also used self-reported surveys, qualitative studies, or assessment of airborne nicotine in worksites and hospitals [9,11,12,19-26]. One such study in China found compliance with smoking restriction policies was poor, with more than 40% of smokers working under a smoke-free policy reporting smoking was still occurring “sometimes” in their workplaces [21]. "
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    BMC Public Health 10/2013; 13(1):964. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-964 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "As a country in transition, accurate characterization and quantification of Peru's tobacco burden and use patterns is of public health importance. Previous studies have shown overall smoking prevalence in Peru at 22% to 38% and a recent report in 2005 from the Center for Information and Education for the Prevention of Drug Abuse found prevalence of daily and occasional smoking in urban Peru to be 8% and 20%, respectively [16-21]. However, study methodologies varied greatly and none focused on the low-income, peri-urban shantytowns. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoking is an important public health concern worldwide leading to both chronic disease and early death. In Latin America, smoking prevalence is estimated at approximately 30% and prior studies suggest that the prevalence in Peru is 22% to 38%. We sought to determine the prevalence of daily smoking in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of adults ≥40 years of age living in Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Peru. We asked participants to respond to a survey that included questions on sociodemographics, tobacco use and dependence. We enrolled 316 participants. Average monthly household income was ≤ 400 USD and nearly all homes had running water, sewage, and electricity. Most individuals had not completed high school. Smoking prevalence was 16% overall, yet daily smoking prevalence was 1.9%. Former daily smokers comprised 3.8% of current nonsmokers and 9.1% current occasional smokers. Average scores for the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence for daily smokers and occasional smokers were 1.5 and 0, respectively. Daily use of tobacco is uncommon among adults in peri-urban communities of Lima, Peru, unlike their counterparts in Lima and other Latin American capital cities. Tobacco dependence is also low. Hence, efforts aimed at primary prevention are of utmost importance in these communities. This study provides an accurate baseline using an internationally recognized assessment tool (Global Adult Tobacco Survey), allowing for accurate assessment of tobacco control interventions over time.
    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 03/2012; 12(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1471-2466-12-9 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    • "After sampling, monitors were stored at -20°C, shipped overnight to JHSPH at 4°C and then stored at 4°C until analyzed. Analysis for nicotine was conducted by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection as previously reported [34]. "
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    Environmental Health 08/2011; 10(1):72. DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-10-72 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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