Post-translational modifications of sibling proteins and their roles in osteogenesis and dentinogenesis.

The Department of Endodontics and Periodontics, University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, Dental Branch, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Critical reviews in oral biology and medicine: an official publication of the American Association of Oral Biologists 02/2004; 15(3):126-36. DOI: 10.1177/154411130401500302
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone and dentin contains several non-collagenous proteins. One category of non-collagenous protein is termed the SIBLING (Small Integrin-Binding LIgand, N-linked Glycoprotein) family, that includes osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE). These polyanionic SIBLING proteins are believed to play key biological roles in the mineralization of bone and dentin. Although the specific mechanisms involved in controlling bone and dentin formation are still unknown, it is clear that some functions of the SIBLING family members are dependent on the nature and extent of post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, and proteolytic processing, since these PTMs would have significant effects on their structure. OPN and BSP are present in the ECM of bone and dentin as full-length forms, whereas amino acid sequencing indicates that DMP1 and DSPP exist as proteolytically processed fragments that result from scission of X-Asp bonds. We hypothesized that the processing of DMP1 and DSPP is catalyzed by the PHEX enzyme, since this protein, an endopeptidase that is predominantly expressed in bone and tooth, has a strong preference for cleavage at the NH2-terminus of aspartyl residue. We envision that the proteolytic processing of DMP1 and DSPP may be an activation process that plays a significant, crucial role in osteogenesis and dentinogenesis, and that a failure in this processing would cause defective mineralization in bone and dentin, as observed in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We performed a sequential morphological and molecular biological study of the development of the vertebral bodies in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Mineralization starts in separate bony elements which fuse to form complete segmental rings within the notochord sheath. The nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in both the lamellar type II collagen matrix of the notochord sheath and the lamellar type I collagen matrix derived from the sclerotome, were highly similar. In both matrices the hydroxyapatite crystals nucleate and accrete on the surface of the collagen fibrils rather than inside the fibrils, a process that may be controlled by a template imposed by the collagen fibrils. Apatite crystal growth starts with the formation of small plate-like structures, about 5 nm thick, that gradually grow and aggregate to form extensive multi-branched crystal arborizations, resembling dendritic growth. The hydroxyapatite crystals are always oriented parallel to the long axis of the collagen fibrils, and the lamellar collagen matrices provide oriented support for crystal growth. We demonstrate here for the first time by means of synchroton radiation based on X-ray diffraction that the chordacentra contain hydroxyapatite. We employed quantitative real-time PCR to study the expression of key signalling molecule transcripts expressed in the cellular core of the notochord. The results indicate that the notochord not only produces and maintains the notochord sheath but also expresses factors known to regulate skeletogenesis: sonic hedgehog (shh), indian hedgehog homolog b (ihhb), parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (pth1r) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (tgfb1). In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the process of vertebral body development in teleost fishes, which is initially orchestrated by the notochord.
    Journal of Anatomy 05/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to observe the differences of osteopontin (OPN) phosphorylation in osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage and normal cartilage, and evaluate the possible correlations between the OPN phosphorylation and MMP-13 expression. Degenerative cartilage (n = 29) and normal cartilage (n = 10) were identified by hematoxylin-eosin, safranin-O staining and modified Mankin score. The phosphorylation level of OPN in OA cartilage and normal cartilage was detected by immunoprecipitation. Chondrocytes were treated with phospho-OPN, OPN or buffer. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and ELISA were used to assess the expression of MMP-13 in different treatments. The OD values of phosphorylation of OPN in normal cartilage and OA cartilage were 137.89 ± 10.59 and 153.52 ± 8.80, respectively, (P = 0.000). Chondrocytes treated with OPN showed a higher MMP-13 expression at gene and protein level compared with control group. Chondrocytes treated with phospho-OPN showed the highest MMP-13 expression in gene and protein. In conclusion, our results revealed a higher phosphorylation level of OPN in OA cartilage than in normal cartilage. We found OPN leads to elevated expression of MMP-13 (both at gene level and protein level), and phospho-OPN had a more obvious upregulation effect on MMP-13 expression than nonphospho-OPN. Further studies are needed to reveal the mechanism of OPN phosphorylation on cartilage degeneration.
    Rheumatology International 11/2012; · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Collagen crosslinking is a major post-translational modification of collagen which has important roles in determining the biomechanical competence of bone. Crosslinks can be divided into enzymatic lysil oxidase-mediated and non-enzymatic glycation-induced (advanced glycation end products, AGE) molecules. In addition, collagen in bone can also undergo spontaneous isomerization and racemization of the aspartic acid residues with the C-telopeptide (CTX), leading to the formation of two isomers namely α (newly formed collagen) and β (matured isomerized collagen) CTX. Several in vitro and ex vivo studies, relating the bone content of these crosslinks with bone strength, have shown that they contributed to the mechanical competence of trabecular and cortical bone-mainly on the post-yield properties-in part independent of the bone mineral content. In addition, AGEs such as pentosidine have been reported to alter the formation and propagation of microdamage by making the bone more brittle. The bone content of AGEs and isomerization can also be modified by antiresorptive and anabolic therapies. They may thus explain part of the antifracture efficacy of these treatments. The main challenge consists in the transposition of these in vitro/ex vivo studies to clinical applications for the development of a non-invasive biomarker, as none of currently identified collagen crosslinks (both enzymatic and nonenzymatic) is bone specific. Nevertheless, serum or urine levels of pentosidine and the ratio of α/β CTX have been reported to predict fracture risk in postmenopausal women, in men and in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    BoneKEy reports. 01/2012; 1:182.


Available from