This study was carried out to provide some evidence for the interruption of transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) among schoolchildren in Trinidad and Tobago. A cross-sectional survey for LF antigenaemia was performed among 63 (13.2%) of the 479 primary schools located in eight administrative (and geographical) regions of Trinidad and Tobago. From these communities, 2597 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years were sequentially selected for a survey of bancroftian antigenaemia. From each child, 100 microl (finger-prick) whole blood sample was applied to a Binax immunochromatographic card test (ICT), and read for the presence of antigenaemia. The ICT results showed a negative finding for LF antigenaemia and suggest that LF transmission has been interrupted in the survey areas.
"t were successful in the earlier phase of the program may no longer be adequate because of issues with sensitivity , the requirement for larger sampling sizes , and lag phases before Mf or CFA are detectable in newly infected persons ( Burkot et al . , 2002 ; Ramzy , 2002 ; Durrheim et al . , 2003 ; Lammie et al . , 2004 ; Melrose et al . , 2004 ; Rawlins et al . , 2004 ; Grady et al . , 2007 ; Weil and Ramzy , 2007 ; Ramaiah et al . , 2009 ) ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ongoing transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) was assessed in five Samoan villages by measuring microfilaraemia (Mf), circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and antibody prevalence. Compared to the other villages, Fasitoo-Tai had a significantly higher Mf prevalence (3·2%), CFA prevalence (14·6%) and antibody prevalence in children (62·0%) (P<0·05). Puapua had a significantly lower CFA prevalence (2·5%), no detectable Mf-positive individuals and significantly low antibody prevalence in children (7·9%) (P<0·05). Siufaga, previously believed to be LF-free, recorded >1% CFA prevalence and a high antibody prevalence in children (46·6%). Overall, antibody prevalence in children appeared to reflect the transmission dynamics in the villages and, in Siufaga, identified an area of ongoing transmission. The Filariasis Cellabs Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (CELISA), based on recombinant antigen Bm14, to detect antibodies, could potentially be a promising diagnostic tool for inclusion in future surveillance in the South Pacific.
Pathogens and Global Health 12/2011; 105(8):567-78. DOI:10.1179/2047773211Y.0000000008 · 1.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To support the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF), well-monitored demonstration projects are important for defining the relationship between coverage and reductions in microfilaremia. We are using mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole in an effort to eliminate LF from Leogane, Haiti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia prevalence at baseline ranged from 0.8% to 15.9% in four sentinel sites. After three rounds of DEC-albendazole mass drug administration (MDA), both microfilaremia prevalence and intensity decreased dramatically. Mild and moderate adverse reactions after treatment were common, especially after the first MDA, but decreased after subsequent MDAs. Drug coverage for the first year was estimated to be 72%, but concerns about adverse reactions appeared to decrease drug coverage in the second MDA. As a result of community education efforts that focused on providing a greater understanding of adverse reactions, coverage increased dramatically for the third round. Program efficiency increased substantially; the costs per person treated for three rounds of MDA were 2.23 US dollars, 1.96 US dollars, and 1.30 US dollars per person, respectively. The Leogane experience highlights the importance of adapting community education and mobilization campaigns to achieve and maintain good coverage.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 12/2005; 73(5):888-94. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disease not just treatable or controllable; it is a disease that can be eliminated. Indeed, LF is currently the target of a major global initiative to do just that; a few visionaries of the past 50 years did hypothesize that LF elimination was feasible. However, for most of the scientific and global health communities, the elimination of such a broadly disseminated, mosquito-borne disease has seemed highly unlikely. During the past decade, however, both the treatment strategies and the control strategies for LF have undergone profound paradigm shifts-all because of a rapid increase in knowledge and understanding of LF that derived directly from a series of remarkable achievements by the scientific and medical research communities. As a result, a public health dimension with a focus on affected populations, now supplements the earlier, predominantly patient-oriented clinical approach to LF. The early uncertainties, then the essential steps leading to this change in outlook are outlined below, followed by descriptions of the new strategy for LF elimination, the Global Programme created to attain this goal and the successes achieved to date.
Advances in Parasitology 02/2006; 61:395-441. DOI:10.1016/S0065-308X(05)61010-X · 6.23 Impact Factor
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