Genetic diversity and high proportion of intersubtype recombinants among HIV type 1-infected pregnant women in Kisumu, western Kenya.
ABSTRACT The high genetic diversity of HIV-1 continues to complicate effective vaccine development. To better understand the extent of genetic diversity, intersubtype recombinants and their relative contribution to the HIV epidemic in Kenya, we undertook a detailed molecular epidemiological investigation on HIV-1-infected women attending an antenatal clinic in Kisumu, Kenya. Analysis of gag-p24 region from 460 specimens indicated that 310 (67.4%) were A, 94 (20.4%) were D, 28 (6.1%) were C, 9 (2.0%) were A2, 8 (1.7%) were G, and 11 (2.4%) were unclassifiable. Analysis of the env -gp41 region revealed that 326 (70.9%) were A, 85 (18.5%) D, 26 (5.7%) C, 9 (2.0%) each of A2 and G, 4(0.9%) unclassifiable, and 1 (0.2%) CRF02_AG. Parallel analyses of the gag-p24 and env-gp41 regions indicated that 344 (74.8%) were concordant subtypes, while the remaining 116 (25.2%) were discordant subtypes. The most common discordant subtypes were D/A (40, 8.7%), A/D (27, 5.9%), C/A (11, 2.4%), and A/C (8, 1.7%). Further analysis of a 2.1-kb fragment spanning the gag-pol region from 38 selected specimens revealed that 19 were intersubtype recombinants and majority of them were unique recombinant forms. Distribution of concordant and discordant subtypes remained fairly stable over the 4-year period (1996-2000) studied. Comparison of amino acid sequences of gag-p24 and env-gp41 regions with the subtype A consensus sequence or Kenyan candidate vaccine antigen (HIVA) revealed minor variations in the immunodominant epitopes. These data provide further evidence of high genetic diversity, with subtype A as the predominant subtype and a high proportion of intersubtype recombinants in Kenya.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Dale J. Hu, Apr 07, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the effect of polymorphism of the Fcgamma receptor IIa, which is associated with differential human IgG subclass binding, on perinatal HIV-1 transmission. Methods: FcgammaRIIa genotype was tested in 448 HIV-seropositive mothers and their infants from a cohort study designed to assess the effect of placental malaria on HIV vertical transmission conducted from 1996 to 2001 in western Kenya. FcgammaRIIa polymorphism was analyzed for associations with susceptibility to perinatal HIV infection and all-cause child mortality in HIV-positive children. Results: Overall, 20% of infants were perinatally infected with HIV. There was no statistically significant association between maternal genotype and perinatal HIV-1 transmission. However, frequency of the infant FcgammaRIIa His/His131 genotype was higher in HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative infants (35% and 21%, respectively), whereas the distribution was reversed (15% and 28%, respectively) for infants with the FcgammaRIIa Arg/Arg131 genotype. Multivariate logistic regression controlling for maternal and infant confounding factors demonstrated that the odds of perinatal HIV infection in infants with the FcgammaRIIa His/His131 versus FcgammaRIIa His/Arg131 genotypes were significantly higher (adjusted odds ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-4.02; P = 0.009). There was no evidence for an association between HIV-positive child all-cause mortality and FcgammaRIIa genotype. Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that the infant FcgammaRIIa His/His131 genotype is associated with susceptibility to perinatal HIV-1 transmission and further suggests that there is a dose-response relationship for the effect of the FcgammaRIIa His131 gene on transmission. (C) 2004 Lippincott Williams Wilkins.AIDS 05/2004; 18(8):187-94. DOI:10.1097/01.aids.0000125966.08883.a1 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral resistance leads to treatment failure and resistance transmission. Resistance data in western Kenya are limited. Collection of non-plasma analytes may provide additional resistance information. We assessed HIV diversity using the REGA tool, transmitted resistance by the WHO mutation list and acquired resistance upon first-line failure by the IAS-USA mutation list, at the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH), a major treatment programme in western Kenya. Plasma and four non-plasma analytes, dried blood-spots (DBS), dried plasma-spots (DPS), ViveSTTM-plasma (STP) and ViveST-blood (STB), were compared to identify diversity and evaluate sequence concordance. Among 122 patients, 62 were treatment-naïve and 60 treatment-experienced; 61% were female, median age 35 years, median CD4 182 cells/µL, median viral-load 4.6 log10 copies/mL. One hundred and ninety-six sequences were available for 107/122 (88%) patients, 58/62 (94%) treatment-naïve and 49/60 (82%) treated; 100/122 (82%) plasma, 37/78 (47%) attempted DBS, 16/45 (36%) attempted DPS, 14/44 (32%) attempted STP from fresh plasma and 23/34 (68%) from frozen plasma, and 5/42 (12%) attempted STB. Plasma and DBS genotyping success increased at higher VL and shorter shipment-to-genotyping time. Main subtypes were A (62%), D (15%) and C (6%). Transmitted resistance was found in 1.8% of plasma sequences, and 7% combining analytes. Plasma resistance mutations were identified in 91% of treated patients, 76% NRTI, 91% NNRTI; 76% dual-class; 60% with intermediate-high predicted resistance to future treatment options; with novel mutation co-occurrence patterns. Nearly 88% of plasma mutations were identified in DBS, 89% in DPS and 94% in STP. Of 23 discordant mutations, 92% in plasma and 60% in non-plasma analytes were mixtures. Mean whole-sequence discordance from frozen plasma reference was 1.1% for plasma-DBS, 1.2% plasma-DPS, 2.0% plasma-STP and 2.3% plasma-STB. Of 23 plasma-STP discordances, one mutation was identified in plasma and 22 in STP (p<0.05). Discordance was inversely significantly related to VL for DBS. In a large treatment programme in western Kenya, we report high HIV-1 subtype diversity; low plasma transmitted resistance, increasing when multiple analytes were combined; and high-acquired resistance with unique mutation patterns. Resistance surveillance may be augmented by using non-plasma analytes for lower-cost genotyping in resource-limited settings.Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(1):19262. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.1.19262 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Investigating the incidence and prevalence of HIV-1 superinfection is challenging due to the complex dynamics of two infecting strains. The superinfecting strain can replace the initial strain, be transiently expressed, or persist along with the initial strain in distinct or in recombined forms. Various selective pressures influence these alternative scenarios in different HIV-1 coding regions. We hypothesized that the potency of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response to autologous viruses would modulate viral dynamics in env following superinfection in a limited set of superinfection cases. HIV-1 env pyrosequencing data were generated from blood plasma collected from 7 individuals with evidence of superinfection. Viral variants within each patient were screened for recombination and viral dynamics evaluated using nucleotide diversity. NAb responses to autologous viruses were evaluated before and after superinfection. In 4 individuals, the superinfecting strain replaced the original strain. In 2 individuals, both initial and superinfecting strains continued to co-circulate. In the final individual, the surviving lineage was the product of inter-strain recombination. NAb responses to autologous viruses were weak or absent for 6 of the 7 recently infected individuals at the time of and shortly following superinfection that were detected within the first 2 years of HIV-1 infection. These 6 individuals had detectable on-going viral replication of distinct superinfecting virus in the env coding region. In the remaining case, there was an early and strong autologous NAb response, which was associated with extensive recombination in env between initial and superinfecting strains. This extensive recombination made superinfection more difficult to identify and may explain why the detection of superinfection has typically been associated with low autologous NAb titers.Journal of Virology 09/2013; DOI:10.1128/JVI.02260-13 · 4.65 Impact Factor