Differential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Receptor Downstream Signaling Pathways by Betacellulin and EGF

Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma 371-8511, Japan. .
Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.5). 10/2004; 145(9):4232-43. DOI: 10.1210/en.2004-0401
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine the downstream signaling pathways regulated by betacellulin (BTC) in comparison with epidermal growth factor (EGF), we used Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing the human EGF receptor (ErbB1/EGFR). The overall time-dependent activation of EGFR autophosphorylation was identical in cells treated with 1 nm BTC or 1.5 nm EGF. Analysis of site-specific EGFR phosphorylation demonstrated that the BTC and EGF tyrosine phosphorylation of Y1086 was not significantly different. In contrast, the autophosphorylation of Y1173 was markedly reduced in BTC-stimulated cells, compared with EGF stimulation that directly correlated with a reduced BTC stimulation of Shc tyrosine phosphorylation, Ras, and Raf-1 activation. On the other hand, Y1068 phosphorylation was significantly increased after BTC stimulation, compared with EGF in parallel with a greater extent of Erk phosphorylation. Expression of a dominant interfering MEK kinase 1 (MEKK1) and Y1068F EGFR more efficiently blocked the enhanced Erk activation by BTC, compared with EGF. Interestingly BTC had a greater inhibitory effect on apoptosis, compared with EGF, and expression of Y1068F EGFR abolished this enhanced inhibitory effect. Together, these data indicated that although BTC and EGF share overlapping signaling properties, the ability of BTC to enhance Erk activation occurs independent of Ras. The increased BTC activation results from a greater extent of Y1068 EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent increased recruitment of the Grb2-MEKK1 complex to the plasma membrane, compared with EGF stimulation. The increased Erk activation by BTC associated with antiapoptotic function.

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    • "Betacellulin is expressed in pancreatic α cells, β cells and duct cells.9 Betacellulin stimulates the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cell lines,10 inhibits apoptosis,11 promotes the neogenesis of β cells12 and converts non-β cells into insulin-producing cells.13 These in vitro studies suggest that betacellulin has an important role in differentiation, growth and survival of pancreatic β cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by permanent destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells and requires lifelong exogenous insulin therapy. Recently, islet transplantation has been developed, and although there have been significant advances, this approach is not widely used clinically due to the poor survival rate of the engrafted islets. We hypothesized that improving survival of engrafted islets through ex vivo genetic engineering could be a novel strategy for successful islet transplantation. We transduced islets with adenoviruses expressing betacellulin, an epidermal growth factor receptor ligand, which promotes β-cell growth and differentiation, and transplanted these islets under the renal capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Transplantation with betacellulin-transduced islets resulted in prolonged normoglycemia and improved glucose tolerance compared with those of control virus-transduced islets. In addition, increased microvascular density was evident in the implanted islets, concomitant with increased endothelial von Willebrand factor immunoreactivity. Finally, cultured islets transduced with betacellulin displayed increased proliferation, reduced apoptosis and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the presence of cytokines. These experiments suggest that transplantation with betacellulin-transduced islets extends islet survival and preserves functional islet mass, leading to a therapeutic benefit in type 1 diabetes.
    Experimental and Molecular Medicine 05/2014; 46(5):e98. DOI:10.1038/emm.2014.24 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    • "BTC is a member of EGF family and acts as a potent mitogen for cell types, with the higher affinity and specificity for ErbB1/EGFR and ErbB4. Homologous or heterologous dimers of ErbB family receptor are then formed to activate signal transduction pathways, such as PI3K/PDK1/Akt and RAS/RAF/MEK/Erk, leading to a series of biological effects [12,13]. Abnormal phosphorylation of Akt and Erk1/2 was considered as an important factor in the prognosis of cancer [14] and constitutive activation of EGFR–Akt–mTOR was found in about 18% of NSCLCs [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Betacellulin (BTC), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, binds and activates ErbB1 and ErbB4 homodimers. BTC was expressed in tumors and involved in tumor growth progression. CXCL8 (interleukin-8) was involved in tumor cell proliferation via the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).Materials and methods: The present study was designed to investigate the possible interrelation between BTC and CXCL8 in human lung cancer cells (A549) and demonstrated the mechanisms of intracellular signals in the regulation of both functions. Bio-behaviors of A549 were assessed using Cell-IQ Alive Image Monitoring System. We found that BTC significantly increased the production of CXCL8 through the activation of the EGFR-PI3K/Akt-Erk signal pathway. BTC induced the resistance of human lung cancer cells to TNF-alpha/CHX-induced apoptosis. Treatments with PI3K inhibitors, Erk1/2 inhibitor, or Erlotinib significantly inhibited BTC-induced CXCL8 production and cell proliferation and movement. Our data indicated that CXCL8 production from lung cancer cells could be initiated by an autocrine mechanism or external sources of BTC through the EGFR-PI3K-Akt-Erk pathway to the formation of inflammatory microenvironment. BTC may act as a potential target to monitor and improve the development of lung cancer inflammation.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 03/2014; 12(1):70. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-12-70 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Absence of EGFR activation in CL 1-5 cells under dcEF was validated by Western blotting against phosphorylated EGFR (Tyr1068), which is shown in Figure 10A. Tyr1068 is a common residue of EGFR that is phosphorylated when EGFR is activated by EGF [66–68]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Physiological electric field (EF) plays a pivotal role in tissue development and regeneration. In vitro, cells under direct-current electric field (dcEF) stimulation may demonstrate directional migration (electrotaxis) and long axis reorientation (electro-alignment). Although the biophysical models and biochemical signaling pathways behind cell electrotaxis have been investigated in numerous normal cells and cancer cells, the molecular signaling mechanisms in CL1 lung adenocarcinoma cells have not been identified. Two subclones of CL1 cells, the low invasive CL1-0 cells and the highly invasive CL 1-5 cells, were investigated in the present study. CL1-0 cells are non-electrotactic while the CL 1-5 cells are anodally electrotactic and have high expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), in this study, we investigated the generally accepted hypothesis of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation in the two cell lines under dcEF stimulation. Erbitux, a therapeutic drug containing an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, was used to investigate the EGFR signaling in the electrotaxis of CL 1-5 cells. To investigate RTK phosphorylation and intracellular signaling in the CL1 cells, large amount of cellular proteins were collected in an airtight dcEF stimulation device, which has advantages of large culture area, uniform EF distribution, easy operation, easy cell collection, no contamination, and no medium evaporation. Commercial antibody arrays and Western blotting were used to study the phosphorylation profiles of major proteins in CL1 cells under dcEF stimulation. We found that electrotaxis of CL 1-5 cells is serum independent and EGFR independent. Moreover, the phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein (rpS6) in dcEF-stimulated CL1 cells are different from that in EGF-stimulated cells. This result suggests that CL1 cells' response to dcEF stimulation is not through EGFR-triggered pathways. The new large-scale dcEF stimulation device developed in the present work will aid the sample preparation for protein-based experiments.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e73418. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073418 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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