National Conference to Assess Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Solid Organ Transplantation

Dumont Transplant Program & Immunogenetics Center, UCLA School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 6.19). 08/2004; 4(7):1033-41. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2004.00500.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The process of humoral rejection is multifaceted and has different manifestations in the various types of organ transplants. Because this process is emerging as a leading cause of graft loss, a conference was held in April 2003 to comprehensively address issues regarding humoral rejection. Though humoral rejection may result from different factors, discussion focused on a paradigm caused by antibodies, typically against donor HLA antigens, leading to the term 'antibody-mediated rejection' (AMR). Conference deliberations were separated into four workgroups: The Profiling Workgroup evaluated strengths and limitations of different methods for detecting HLA reactive antibody, and created risk assessment guidelines for AMR; The Diagnosis Workgroup reviewed clinical, pathologic, and serologic criteria for assessing AMR in renal, heart and lung transplant recipients; The Treatment Workgroup discussed advantages, limitations and possible mechanisms of action for desensitization protocols that may reverse AMR; and The Basic Science Workgroup presented animal and human immunologic models for humoral rejection and proposed potential targets for future intervention. This work represents a comprehensive review with contributions from experts in the fields of Transplantation Surgery, Medicine, Pathology, Histocompatibility, Immunology, and clinical trial design. Immunologic barriers once considered insurmountable are now consistently overcome to enable more patients to undergo organ transplantation.

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    ABSTRACT: Transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs from one individual to another can incite the production of antibodies specific for foreign antigens, especially major histocompatibility antigens, in the graft. Antibodies specific for a graft provide an index of immunity and a potential trigger for injury and rejection. However, the index of immunity can sometimes miss antibody-mediated rejection and besides causing injury the antibodies against a graft can also protect a graft from injury by blocking immune recognition, called enhancement, regulating activation of complement, and inducing changes in the graft that resist damage. Reviewed here are potential limitations in the use of antibodies as an index of immunity and the ways antibodies cause and/or prevent injury.
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