Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is classically defined as a diastolic disease with normal systolic function. Long axis left ventricular function is an important and sensitive determinant of global ventricular function but its assessment is often difficult and complex. Tissue Doppler imaging of the mitral annulus allows the study of long axis left ventricular function.
47 patients with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 45 healthy volunteers, matched by age and sex, were studied with pulsed tissue Doppler imaging of the 4 sides of the mitral annulus (septal, lateral, inferior, anterior) in 4 and 2 chamber views. In each wave (systolic-s, rapid filling-e, atrial contraction-a) we analyzed velocities, time intervals and velocity-time integrals, as well as heterogeneity and asynchrony. Data were compared among the different sides in each group, between groups and with conventional Doppler data.
In contrast to normal subjects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients showed: 1--Systolic function: lower velocities, longer systolic time intervals (isovolumic relaxation time, time to peak s, ejection time), higher systolic asynchrony (time to peak s, ejection time, systolic time) and lower s/shortening fraction ratio. These changes occurred despite normal indices of global systolic function. 2--Diastolic function: lower velocities (much lower rapid filling velocity, lower atrial contraction velocity, lower septal e/a), higher e/a heterogeneity index, longer protodiastolic times (isovolumic relaxation time and time to peak e), higher diastolic asynchrony (time to peak e) and lower e wave integral. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients also showed higher average number of annular sides with e/a < 1 per patient and higher percentage of e/a < 1, mainly on the septal side.
This study shows that: 1--Tissue Doppler imaging allows the detailed analysis of long axis left ventricular function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. 2--Long axis systolic function is abnormal in this disease, even in the presence of normal indices of global systolic function. 3--Long axis diastolic function is deeply disturbed in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, at ventricular and atrial levels. 4--Long axis dysfunction occurs in annular sides contiguous to hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied walls, highlighting the role of other factors in its pathophysiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introdução: A presença de obstrução intraventricular em doentes com miocardiopatia hipertrófica (MH) associa-se a alterações da carga que tornam difícil a avaliação correcta da função miocárdica por ecocardiografia convencional. Objectivos: Comparar a função miocárdica regional por ecocardiografia Doppler tecidular (DT), entre doentes com miocardiopatia hipertrófica obstrutiva (MHO) e doentes com forma não obstrutiva (MHNO) da doença. Metodologia: Em 26 doentes com MHO e em 23 com MHNO foi analisada por DT a função miocárdica regional ventricular esquerda no eixo longitudinal (8 segmentos, via apical) e radial (2 segmentos, via paraesternal, curto eixo). Foram analisados parâmetros no domínio das velocidades, tempos e integral velocidade-tempo, bem como os índices de heterogeneidade e assincronia, e em cada parede, o gradiente meridional (basal-mediano) de velocidades. Estes dados foram comparados em cada grupo e entre os grupos. Background: The conventional echocardiographic assessment of myocardial function in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is complex, because of the load dependency of this method. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) may improve this evaluation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distinction between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and the athlete's (AT) heart is an important clinical problem, and the analysis of regional myocardial function with Doppler tissue imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis.
Our aim was to compare regional function assessed by Doppler tissue imaging in rowers and in a group of patients with HCM.
In 24 patients with nonobstructive HCM and in 20 competitive rowers with similar age, blood pressure, and heart rate, we analyzed with pulsed Doppler tissue imaging left ventricular (LV) regional function (velocities, time intervals, heterogeneity and asynchrony indices, and meridional gradient) in the longitudinal (8 segments, apical views) and in the radial (2 segments, short-axis view) axis.
Compared with AT, patients with HCM showed: (1). systolic function; (a). longitudinal: lower velocities and meridional gradient; longer precontraction period (PCP); and higher PCP/LV contraction time; (b). radial: lower velocities and gradient; longer PCP; and higher PCP/LV contraction time; (2.diastolic function; (a). logitudinal: lower e (early diastolic), a (late diastolic), and e/a velocities; and longer prerelaxation time and time to peak e. The percentage of segments with e/a < 1 was 25% in the HCM group and 0% in the AT heart group; (b). radial: lower e velocity and gradient; lower e/a gradient; and longer medial prerelaxation and basal time to peak e. Most of these differences also occurred in the nonhypertrophied inferior wall of patients with HCM.
There are significant differences between regional LV function of competitive rowers and patients with HCM. These differences (1). occur in systole and diastole; (2). affect velocities and time intervals; (3). are more striking in the long axis, but are also seen in the short axis, and (4). also occur in nonhypertrophied segments, suggesting the usefulness of the technique in the differential diagnosis between the 2 situations, namely in individuals that fall in Maron's "grey zone."
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 03/2003; 16(3):223-32. DOI:10.1067/mje.2003.13 · 4.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To discuss the role of tissue Doppler imaging for assessing regional myocardial function in patients with proven or suspected hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and review its application in clinical practice for diagnosis, estimation of filling pressures, and monitoring of treatment.
Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have very abnormal systolic and diastolic myocardial function, even if global systolic function of the left ventricle appears normal. Regional function is most abnormal in walls that are markedly hypertrophied, but it is also abnormal in segments that are not affected by hypertrophy, and it is depressed in patients who have a mutation for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but have not yet developed clear phenotypic changes. Genetic diagnosis remains difficult especially in sporadic cases, due to the very large number of mutations that have been identified; the hypertrophy may represent a nonspecific compensatory response to any mutation that impairs myofibrillar function. Subclinical changes especially affect long-axis ventricular function, and tissue Doppler imaging is the most sensitive test to identify reduced velocities of long-axis shortening and early diastolic lengthening of the left ventricle, prolonged contraction and relaxation times, and reduced strain in affected segments, both in patients with hypertrophy and in asymptomatic subjects with mutations. It can also discriminate well between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and athlete's heart, and can be used with standard echocardiographic measurements to estimate left ventricular filling pressure or to monitor treatment.
Tissue Doppler imaging can now be usefully incorporated into the routine echocardiographic study of patients with proven or suspected hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Current Opinion in Cardiology 10/2004; 19(5):430-6. DOI:10.1097/01.hco.0000131537.78399.52 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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