Expression of septin 3 isoforms in human brain.
ABSTRACT Septin 3 is a novel member of the septin subfamily of GTPase domain proteins. Human septin 3 was originally cloned during a screening of genes expressed in human teratocarcinoma cells induced to differentiate with retinoic acid. Alternative splicing of the septin 3 gene transcript produces two isoforms, A and B, in the human brain, though their regional expression and physiological function remain to be determined. The purpose of the present study was to identify the expression patterns of human septin 3 isoforms in normal human brain and a human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, after retinoic acid-induced differentiation. The expression and distribution patterns of septin 3 isoforms A and B were similar and resembled that of another septin, CDCrel-1. Septin 3A and 3B were expressed in normal human brain in a region-specific manner, with the highest level in the temporal cortex and hippocampus and the lowest level in the brainstem regions. Prominent immunoreactivity was observed diffusely in the neocortices in association with neuropils and punctate structures suggestive of synaptic junctions. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that septin 3A, 3B, and CDCrel-1 form a complex in the frontal cortex of human brain. These findings, taken together, suggest that septin 3A and 3B, along with CDCrel-1, play some fundamental role(s) in synaptogenesis and neuronal development.
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ABSTRACT: Classical population genetics shows that varying permutations of genes and risk factors permit or disallow the effects of causative agents, depending on circumstance. For example, genes and environment determine whether a fox kills black or white rabbits on snow or black ash covered islands. Risk promoting effects are different on each island, but obscured by meta-analysis or GWAS data from both islands, unless partitioned by different contributory factors. In Alzheimer's disease, the foxes appear to be herpes, borrelia or chlamydial infection, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia, diabetes, cerebral hypoperfusion, oestrogen depletion, or vitamin A deficiency, all of which promote beta-amyloid deposition in animal models—without the aid of gene variants. All relate to risk factors and subsets of susceptibility genes, which condition their effects. All are less prevalent in convents, where nuns appear less susceptible to the ravages of ageing. Antagonism of the antimicrobial properties of beta-amyloid by Abeta autoantibodies in the ageing population, likely generated by antibodies raised to beta-amyloid/pathogen protein homologues, may play a role in this scenario. These agents are treatable by diet and drugs, vitamin supplementation, pathogen detection and elimination, and autoantibody removal, although again, the beneficial effects of individual treatments may be tempered by genes and environment.ISRN Neurology. 01/2011;
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ABSTRACT: Peanut-like 1 (PNUTL1) is a septin gene which is expressed at high levels in human brain. There it plays a role in the process of membrane fusion during exocytosis by interacting with syntaxin and synaptophysin. As the secretory apparatus of pancreatic islet cells closely resembles that of neurons, we decided to study the expression of PNUTL1 in the human endocrine pancreas, both in normal islets and in pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs). Normal pancreatic tissue, purified islets, 11 PETs and two cell lines were used to evaluate the presence of PNUTL1 by RT-PCR and Western blot. The expression of the PNUTL1 protein was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry on normal pancreas, additional 26 PETs, eight pancreatic adenocarcinomas, one mixed endocrine-exocrine pancreatic neoplasm, a specimen of solid papillary pseudomucinous tumor, an adult islet cell hyperplasia and a case of neonatal nesidioblastosis. In addition, a tissue array (LandMark High Density Cancer Tissue MicroArray) comprising 280 various tumor and matched normal specimens was utilized. In PETs, the expression of pancreatic hormones, chromogranin-A, synaptophysin and Ki-67 were also evaluated. In the normal pancreas PNUTL1 expression is almost exclusively confined to the islet cells, weak expression was occasionally seen in some acinar cells, while immunoreactivity was completely absent in the ductal epithelia. PNUTL1 expression is maintained at similar high levels in hyperplastic and neoplastic islet cells, but this did not correlate with any of the clinicopathological data nor with proliferation status in PETs. Weak immunoreactivity was also noted in a proportion of exocrine neoplasms. Our findings describe for the first time the high expression levels of PNUTL1 in human pancreatic endocrine cells that suggests a similar role of this protein in islet cells to that demonstrated in neuronal tissues, and warrants further functional studies of this protein.Neuroendocrinology 02/2005; 81(5):311-21. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The septins constitute a family of GTPase proteins that are involved in many cytological processes such as cytokinesis and exocytosis. Previous studies have indicated that mammalian Sept3 is a brain-specific protein that is abundant in synaptic terminals. Here, we further investigated the localization and function of Sept3 in the mouse brain. Sept3 is expressed in several types of post-mitotic neurons, including granule cells in the cerebellum and pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In primary cultures of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, Sept3 protein is enriched at the tips of growing neurites during differentiation. Sept3 directly binds to Sept5 and Sept7 and forms a heteromeric complex at nerve terminals adjacent to where a synaptic vesicle marker, synaptophysin, is expressed in mature neurons. When over-expressed in HEK293 cells, Sept3 forms filamentous structures that are dependent on the presence of its GTP- and phosphoinositide-binding domains. To investigate the physiological roles of Sept3, we generated Sept3 deficient mice. These mice show no apparent abnormalities in histogenesis nor neuronal differentiation in culture. Expression of synaptic proteins and other septins are unaltered, indicating that Sept3 is dispensable for normal neuronal development.Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2007; 102(1):77-92. · 3.97 Impact Factor