Chitosan nanoparticles for plasmid DNA delivery: effect of chitosan molecular structure on formulation and release characteristics.
ABSTRACT Chitosan can be useful as a nonviral vector for gene delivery. Although there are several reports to form chitosan-pDNA particles, the optimization and effect on transfection remain insufficient. The chitosan-pDNA nanoparticles were formulated using complex coacervation and solvent evaporation techniques. The important parameters for the encapsulation efficiency were investigated, including molecular weight and deacetylation degree of chitosan. We found that encapsulation efficiency of pDNA is directly proportional with deacetylation degree, but there is an inverse proportion with molecular weight of chitosan. DNA-nanoparticles in the size range of 450-820 nm depend on the formulation process. The surface charge of the nanoparticles prepared with complex coacervation method was slightly positive with a zeta potential of +9 to +18 mV; nevertheless, nanoparticles prepared with solvent evaporation method had a zeta potential approximately +30 mV. The pDNA-chitosan nanoparticles prepared by using high deacetylation degree chitosan having 92.7%, 98.0%, and 90.4% encapsulation efficiency protect the encapsulated pDNA from nuclease degradation as shown by electrophoretic mobility analysis. The release of pDNA from the formulation prepared by complex coacervation was completed in 24 hr whereas the formulation prepared by evaporation technique released pDNA in 96 hr, but these release profiles are not statistically significant compared with formulations with similar structure (p > .05). According to the results, we suggest nanoparticles have the potential to be used as a transfer vector in further studies.
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ABSTRACT: Overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 is often observed in a wide variety of human cancers. It prevents the induction of apoptosis in neoplastic cells and contributes to resistance to chemotherapy. RNA interference has emerged as an efficient and selective technique for gene silencing. The potential to use small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer has elicited a great deal of interest. However, insufficient cellular uptake and poor stability have limited its therapeutic applications. The purpose of this study was to prepare chitosan nanoparticles via ionic gelation of chitosan by tripolyphosphate for effective delivery of siRNA to silence the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene in neoplastic cells. Chitosan nanoparticles loaded with siRNA were in the size range 190 to 340 nm with a polydispersive index ranging from 0.04 to 0.2. They were able to completely bind with siRNA, provide protection against nuclease degradation, and enhance the transfection. Cell culture studies revealed that nanoparticles with entrapped siRNA could efficiently silence the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene. Studies on Swiss albino mice showed that siRNA could be effectively delivered through nanoparticles. There was significant decrease in the tumor volume. Blocking the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 can enhance the sensitivity of cancerous cells to anti-cancer drugs and the apoptosis rate. Therefore, nanoformulations with siRNA can be promoted as an adjuvant therapy in combination with anti-cancer drugs.Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters 03/2013; 18(1):120-36. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There has been a great interest in application of nanoparticles as biomaterials for delivery of therapeutic molecules such as drugs and genes, and for tissue engineering. In particular, biopolymers are suitable materials as nanoparticles for clinical application due to their versatile traits, including biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. Biopolymers are polymers that are produced from living organisms, which are classified in three groups: polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. It is important to control particle size, charge, morphology of surface and release rate of loaded molecules to use biopolymer-based nanoparticles as drug/gene delivery carriers. To obtain a nano-carrier for therapeutic purposes, a variety of materials and preparation process has been attempted. This review focuses on fabrication of biocompatible nanoparticles consisting of biopolymers such as protein (silk, collagen, gelatin, β-casein, zein and albumin), protein-mimicked polypeptides and polysaccharides (chitosan, alginate, pullulan, starch and heparin). The effects of the nature of the materials and the fabrication process on the characteristics of the nanoparticles are described. In addition, their application as delivery carriers of therapeutic drugs and genes and biomaterials for tissue engineering are also reviewed.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(1):1629-54. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bridging the gap between nanoparticulate delivery systems and translational gene therapy is a long sought after requirement in nanomedicine-based applications. However, recent developments regarding nanoparticle functionalization have brought forward the ability to synthesize materials with biofunctional moieties that mimic the evolved features of viral particles. Herein we report the versatile conjugation of both cell penetrating arginine and pH-responsive histidine moieties into the chitosan polymeric backbone, to improve the physicochemical characteristics of the native material. Amino acid coupling was confirmed by 2D TOCSY NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The synthesized chitosan-histidine-arginine (CH-H-R) polymer complexed plasmid DNA biopharmaceuticals, and spontaneously assembled into stable 105 nm nanoparticles with spherical morphology and positive surface charge. The functionalized delivery systems were efficiently internalized into the intracellular compartment, and exhibited remarkably higher transfection efficiency than unmodified chitosan without causing any cytotoxic effect. Additional findings regarding intracellular trafficking events reveal their preferential escape from degradative lysosomal pathways and nuclear localization. Overall, this assembly of nanocarriers with bioinspired moieties provides the foundations for the design of efficient and customizable materials for cancer gene therapy.Nanotechnology 06/2013; 24(27):275101. · 3.84 Impact Factor