Chitosan nanoparticles for plasmid DNA delivery: effect of chitosan molecular structure on formulation and release characteristics.
ABSTRACT Chitosan can be useful as a nonviral vector for gene delivery. Although there are several reports to form chitosan-pDNA particles, the optimization and effect on transfection remain insufficient. The chitosan-pDNA nanoparticles were formulated using complex coacervation and solvent evaporation techniques. The important parameters for the encapsulation efficiency were investigated, including molecular weight and deacetylation degree of chitosan. We found that encapsulation efficiency of pDNA is directly proportional with deacetylation degree, but there is an inverse proportion with molecular weight of chitosan. DNA-nanoparticles in the size range of 450-820 nm depend on the formulation process. The surface charge of the nanoparticles prepared with complex coacervation method was slightly positive with a zeta potential of +9 to +18 mV; nevertheless, nanoparticles prepared with solvent evaporation method had a zeta potential approximately +30 mV. The pDNA-chitosan nanoparticles prepared by using high deacetylation degree chitosan having 92.7%, 98.0%, and 90.4% encapsulation efficiency protect the encapsulated pDNA from nuclease degradation as shown by electrophoretic mobility analysis. The release of pDNA from the formulation prepared by complex coacervation was completed in 24 hr whereas the formulation prepared by evaporation technique released pDNA in 96 hr, but these release profiles are not statistically significant compared with formulations with similar structure (p > .05). According to the results, we suggest nanoparticles have the potential to be used as a transfer vector in further studies.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to prepare chitosan nanoparticles incorporating a relatively large plasmid encoding for osteogenic protein (OP)-1 and to determine the ability of these nanoparticles to transfect adult canine articular chondrocytes in vitro. The positive charge of chitosan acted to condense the relatively large negatively-charged OP-1 plasmid such that it could be incorporated into nanoparticles. Incorporation of the plasmid into the chitosan nanoparticles did not affect the structural integrity of the plasmid as demonstrated by gel electrophoresis. The morphology and size of the nanoparticles were found to vary with the chitosan:plasmid weight ratio. Nanoparticles formulated with a chitosan:plasmid ratio of 10:1 were of uniformly small size (less than 250 nm) and spherical shape. These nanoparticles had a positive charge of about 20 mV. FITC-labeled chitosan nanoparticles were found in virtually all of the cells after 24 h of incubation with the nanoparticles, and confocal microscopy revealed FITC-related fluorescence in the nucleus of the chondrocytes. Although transfection of the chondrocytes was demonstrated by the fluorescence of cells treated with chitosan nanoparticles containing the plasmid for the enhanced green fluorescence protein, cells transfected with nanoparticles incorporating the larger OP-1 plasmid did not show OP-1 expression measured by ELISA for up to 2 weeks in culture. These results indicate that although a large plasmid can be successfully incorporated within chitosan nanoparticles, the size of the plasmid incorporated within the nanoparticles may still significantly affect gene transfer to cells.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 04/2008; 84(4):1038-48. · 2.63 Impact Factor
Article: Oral vaccination based on DNA-chitosan nanoparticles against Schistosoma mansoni infection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The development of a vaccine would be essential for the control of schistosomiasis, which is recognized as the most important human helminth infection in terms of morbidity and mortality. A new approach of oral vaccination with DNA-chitosan nanoparticles appears interesting because of their great stability and the ease of target accessibility, besides chitosan immunostimulatory properties. Here we described that chitosan nanoparticles loaded with plasmid DNA encoding Rho1-GTPase protein of Schistosoma mansoni, prepared at different molar ratios of primary amines to DNA phosphate anion (N/P), were able to complex electrostatically with DNA and condense it into positively charged nanostructures. Nanoparticles were able to maintain zeta potential and size characteristics in media that simulate gastric (SGF) and intestinal fluids (SIF). Further in vivo studies showed that oral immunization was not able to induce high levels of specific antibodies but induced high levels of the modulatory cytokine IL-10. This resulted in a significative reduce of liver pathology, although it could not protect mice of infection challenge with S. mansoni worms. Mice immunized only with chitosan nanoparticles presented 47% of protection against parasite infection, suggesting an important role of chitosan in inducing a protective immune response against schistosomiasis, which will be more explored in further studies.TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 01/2012; 2012:938457. · 1.66 Impact Factor
Article: High efficiency gene transfer using chitosan/DNA nanoparticles with specific combinations of molecular weight and degree of deacetylation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chitosan is a biodegradable natural polysaccharide that has shown potential for gene delivery, although the ideal molecular weight (MW) and degree of deacetylation (DDA) for this application have not been elucidated. To examine the influence of these parameters on gene transfer, we produced chitosans with different DDAs (98%, 92%, 80% and 72%) and depolymerized them with nitrous acid to obtain different MWs (150, 80, 40 and 10 kDa). We produced 64 formulations of chitosan/pDNA complexes (16 chitosans, 2 amine-to-phosphate (N:P) ratios of 5:1 and 10:1 and 2 transfection media pH of 6.5 and 7.1), characterized them for size and surface charge, and tested them for gene transfection in HEK 293 cells in vitro. Several formulations produced high levels of transgene expression while two conditions, 92-10-5 and 80-10-10 [DDA-MW-N:P ratio] at pH 6.5, showed equivalence to our best positive control. The results also revealed an important coupling between DDA and MW of chitosan in determining transgene expression. Maximum expression was obtained with a certain combination of DDA and MW that depended on N:P ratio and the pH, but similar expression levels could be achieved by simultaneously lowering MW and increasing DDA or lowering DDA and increasing MW, suggesting a predominant role of particle stability, through co-operative electrostatic binding, in determining transfection efficiency.Biomaterials 10/2006; 27(27):4815-24. · 7.40 Impact Factor