TOLL-like receptor 10 (TLR10) is the most recently identified human homolog of the Drosophila TOLL protein. In humans, the TOLL-like receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as part of innate immune host defenses. Localized to chromosome 4p14, the specific ligands and functions of TLR10 are currently unknown, although it is expressed in lung and in B-lymphocytes. TLR10 is a potential asthma candidate gene because early life innate immune responses to ubiquitous inhaled allergens and PAMPs may influence asthma susceptibility. Resequencing in 47 subjects revealed a total of 78 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) (1 SNP per 106 bp) of which only 11 had been previously published. A significant association (p < or = 0.02) between two SNPs (c.+1031G>A, c.+2322A>G) and physician-diagnosed asthma was observed in a case control study (517 cases, 519 control subjects) of European American subjects nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort. The association for these same two SNPs (p < or = 0.015) replicated in an independent family based cohort, where a measure of airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20) was also associated (p = 0.026 for c.+1031G>A). Consistent association in two independent samples and association with an intermediate phenotype provides strong support for TLR10 genetic variation contributing to asthma risk.
"For TLR10, two SNPs Pro344Pro and Iso775Val have been found to be associated with asthma in a study of 47 subjects . Several SNPs within the TLR10 gene have been linked to Crohn's disease  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a large group of proteins which recognize various pathogen-associated molecular patterns, are critical for the normal function of the innate immune system. Following their discovery many single nucleotide polymorphisms within TLRs and components of their signaling machinery have been discovered and subsequently implicated in a wide range of human diseases including atherosclerosis, sepsis, asthma, and immunodeficiency. This review discusses the effect of genetic variation on TLR function and how they may precipitate disease.
Current Genomics 12/2012; 13(8):633-45. DOI:10.2174/138920212803759712 · 2.34 Impact Factor
"A number of studies have searched for associations between genetic variation in the TLR genes and allergic disorders such as asthma, atopic eczema and allergic rhinitis (AR). Genetic variation in TLR2, TLR4, TLR10 and TLR1TLR6 and TLR10 have been associated with the development of asthma, and in TLR9 a promoter polymorphism has been associated with atopic eczema . Other studies, however, have failed to find associations with genetic variants in TLR2 and TLR4 in atopic eczema  and in AR . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Toll-like receptor proteins are important in host defense and initiation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. A number of studies have identified associations between genetic variation in the Toll-like receptor genes and allergic disorders such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. The present study aim to search for genetic variation associated with allergic rhinitis in the Toll-like receptor genes.
A first association analysis genotyped 73 SNPs in 182 cases and 378 controls from a Swedish population. Based on these results an additional 24 SNPs were analyzed in one Swedish population with 352 cases and 709 controls and one Chinese population with 948 cases and 580 controls.
The first association analysis identified 4 allergic rhinitis-associated SNPs in the TLR7-TLR8 gene region. Subsequent analysis of 24 SNPs from this region identified 7 and 5 significant SNPs from the Swedish and Chinese populations, respectively. The corresponding risk-associated haplotypes are significant after Bonferroni correction and are the most common haplotypes in both populations. The associations are primarily detected in females in the Swedish population, whereas it is seen in males in the Chinese population. Further independent support for the involvement of this region in allergic rhinitis was obtained from quantitative skin prick test data generated in both populations.
Haplotypes in the TLR7-TLR8 gene region were associated with allergic rhinitis in one Swedish and one Chinese population. Since this region has earlier been associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in a Danish linkage study this speaks strongly in favour of this region being truly involved in the development of this disease.
BMC Medical Genetics 08/2012; 13(1):66. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-13-66 · 2.08 Impact Factor
"For example TLR7 and TLR8 are associated with human asthma  while ligands of TLR7 and TLR8 can prevent airway remodeling caused by experimentally induced asthma [187,188]. TLR10 single nucleotide polymorphisms have also been associated with asthma in two independent samples  although the ligand for TLR10 has not been defined. Finally, in a multi-centre asthma study, TLR4 and TLR9 were both associated with wheezing and TLR4 was also associated with allergen specific IgE secretion . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By virtue of its direct contact with the environment, the lung is constantly challenged by infectious and non-infectious stimuli that necessitate a robust yet highly controlled host response coordinated by the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) function as crucial sentinels of microbial and non-infectious antigens throughout the respiratory tract and mediate host innate immunity. Selective induction of inflammatory responses to harmful environmental exposures and tolerance to innocuous antigens are required to maintain tissue homeostasis and integrity. Conversely, dysregulated innate immune responses manifest as sustained and self-perpetuating tissue damage rather than controlled tissue repair. In this article we review aspects of Toll-like receptor function that are relevant to the development of acute lung injury and chronic obstructive lung diseases as well as resistance to frequently associated microbial infections.
Journal of Inflammation 11/2010; 7(1):57. DOI:10.1186/1476-9255-7-57 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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