Efficacy of dual-specific Bcr-Abl and Src-family kinase inhibitors in cells sensitive and resistant to imatinib mesylate.

Department of Haematology, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.
Leukemia (Impact Factor: 9.38). 09/2004; 18(8):1352-6. DOI: 10.1038/sj.leu.2403416
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Monotherapy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with imatinib mesylate has been cast into shadow by the evolution of clinical resistance during therapy. Resistance to imatinib can arise by multiple mechanisms including amplification or mutation of Bcr-Abl, and continuity of imatinib therapy is probably a poor option for either of these patient groups. Recently, however, a structurally distinct new class of drugs, the pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines, has been described, and these compounds are predicted to make different molecular contacts in the Abl kinase domain. These drugs potently target both the Bcr-Abl and Src-family kinase activities, both of which are thought to be relevant to survival of the leukemic cell. We asked whether these drugs could selectively induce cell death in murine cell line models of CML cells sensitive and resistant to imatinib by different mechanisms. We show that whereas the pyrido[2,3-d] pyrimidines are indeed highly potent in suppressing proliferation of Bcr-Abl-overexpressing imatinib-resistant cells, they are almost completely ineffective against cells expressing the T315I mutant. This implies that despite structural differences from imatinib, these drugs are unlikely to be useful in patients expressing this mutant Bcr-Abl protein, but may be effective in cases where selection of cells overexpressing the oncoprotein leads to refractoriness to imatinib.

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    ABSTRACT: Chronic myelogenous leukemia is characterized by the presence of the chimeric BCR-ABL gene, which is expressed as the constitutively active Bcr-Abl kinase. Although kinase activity is directly responsible for the clinical phenotype, current diagnostic and prognostic methods focus on a genetic classification system in which molecularly distinct subcategories are used to predict patient responses to small-molecule inhibitors of the Bcr-Abl kinase. Point mutations in the kinase domain are a central factor regulating inhibitor resistance; however, compensatory signaling caused by the activation of unrelated kinases can influence inhibitor efficacy. Kinase activity profiling can be used as a complementary approach to genetic screening and allows direct screening of small-molecule inhibitors. We developed a quantitative assay to monitor tyrosine kinase activities and inhibitor sensitivities in a model of chronic myelogenous leukemia using peptide reporters covalently immobilized on Luminex beads. Kinase activity is quantified by nonlinear regression from well-specific internal standard curves. Using optimized synthetic substrates and peptides derived from native substrates as probes, we measured kinase inhibition in cell lysates by the signal transduction inhibitors imatinib and dasatinib. Taking advantage of a convenient 96-well plate format, this assay also allows a straightforward and quantitative analysis of the differential effects of ATP and inhibitors on kinase activity. This method for analyzing a focused signaling network benefits from rigorous statistical analysis and short processing times, thereby offering a powerful tool for drug discovery and clinical testing.
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