Ultrasound examination of the postpartum uterus: what is normal?
ABSTRACT To establish normal ultrasonographic findings for the postpartum uterus after vaginal delivery, and to characterize associated bleeding patterns.
Postpartum women were scanned by transabdominal ultrasound within 48 h after normal vaginal delivery. Uterine length, uterine width, endometrial stripe thickness and endometrial contents were evaluated by a single sonographer. Patients maintained a daily symptom diary for 6 weeks and were interviewed by telephone at 2 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using chi2, Fisher's exact test, Student's t test and Pearson correlation.
Mean endometrial stripe thickness was 1.1 +/- 0.6 cm, mean uterine length was 16.1 +/- 1.7 cm and mean uterine width was 8.7 +/- 1.0 cm. Postpartum bleeding requiring more than four protective pads per day for > or =10 days was associated with a thicker endometrial stripe (1.5 +/- 0.7 cm vs. 0.9 +/- 0.4 cm, p = 0.006). However, no patients experienced postpartum bleeding complications requiring intervention. Of the 40 women evaluated, 16 had echogenic material in the uterine cavity (mean size 12.7 +/- 6.9 cm2). The presence of echogenic material was not associated with the amount or duration of bleeding.
Frequent postpartum ultrasonographic findings include a thickened endometrial stripe and echogenic material in the uterine cavity. The echogenic material commonly seen in the endometrial cavity of asymptomatic patients was not associated with the development of bleeding complications.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Elaine Haney, Jul 03, 2015
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Article: Ultrasound examination of the postpartum uterus: what is normal?
- SourceAvailable from: Ajlana Mulic-Lutvica[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To describe sonographic findings associated with retained placental tissue in patients with secondary postpartum hemorrhage, and to compare these findings with those of women with a normal puerperium. This was a prospective observational study of 79 women with secondary postpartum hemorrhage. Ultrasound examinations were performed on the day the patients presented with clinical symptoms and were scheduled for postpartum days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56, continuing until uterine surgical evacuation was performed or until the bleeding stopped. The maximum anteroposterior (AP) diameters of the uterus and uterine cavity were measured and morphological findings in the cavity were recorded. The findings were compared with previously published results from a normal population. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 18) underwent surgery and Group 2 (n = 61) was treated conservatively. Sonography revealed an echogenic mass in the uterine cavity in 17 patients from Group 1, and in 14 of these patients histology confirmed placental tissue. The AP diameter of the uterine cavity was above the 90(th) percentile in all but two of the 18 Group 1 patients. In 18 patients from Group 2 the cavity was empty and in 43 a mixed-echo pattern was found. The uterine cavity was wider compared with the controls, but the values largely overlapped. This report supports the opinion that the sonographic finding of an echogenic mass in the uterine cavity in women with secondary postpartum hemorrhage is associated with retained placental tissue.Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 09/2006; 28(3):312-9. DOI:10.1002/uog.2849 · 3.14 Impact Factor
Article: Ultrasound of the post-partum uterus[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the appearance of the post-partum uterus on transabdominal ultrasound, and to correlate these findings with maternal morbidity. In a prospective observational study, 94 women were seen within 24 h of their delivery and assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Volumetric data were calculated from measurements of intrauterine echogenic areas. All women were contacted for a telephone interview 1-4 months following their delivery to assess whether they had experienced morbidity associated with their delivery such as post-partum haemorrhage, pyrexia, prolonged hospital stay, follow-up investigations or surgical intervention. Two areas of echogenic material were identified in the upper and lower segment of the post-partum uterus. These were assessed independently for dimensions and volumes. The upper segment area had an average thickness of 13.8 mm and an average volume of 35.6 cm(3) The lower segment/cervical area held considerably more material with an average volume of 54.8 cm(3). The mean duration of post-partum bleeding was 4.2 weeks. None of the recruited women required a blood transfusion. The average hospital stay was 4 days. Twenty-two (23%) of the participants experienced a febrile illness following delivery, and 19 (20%) were commenced on antibiotics. None of these parameters of post-partum morbidity were associated with the ultrasound findings. In this study ultrasound evaluation in the immediate post-partum period revealed unexpectedly large volumes of echogenic material in the uterine cavity. However, such volumes of echogenic material were not associated with postnatal morbidity, and can probably be accepted as normal.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 09/2006; 46(4):345-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1479-828X.2006.00604.x · 1.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether there is a relationship between the findings of routine postpartum ultrasonographic scanning and puerperal uterine complications such as heavy delayed postpartum hemorrhage, retained products of conception, and need for uterine curettage; and to estimate the value of both routine ultrasonographic scanning and clinical data in the prediction of these complications. In this cohort study 265 women were examined ultrasonographically on postpartum Days 1, 14, 42 following uncomplicated vaginal or cesarean deliveries. They were divided into a low-risk (n=149) and a high-risk (n=116) group according to predefined risk factors for puerperal uterine complications. The ultrasonographic findings were dichotomized into no masses (endometrial strip, endometrial fluid, or hyperechoic foci) or a definite intrauterine echogenic/heterogeneous mass (IUM, >15 mm in diameter). The presence of risk factor(s) was significantly associated with uterine subinvolution, IUM, heavy delayed postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), and a need for uterine curettage. Multivariable logistic regression analysis for the risk factor(s) that can predict the occurrence of heavy delayed PPH showed that the presence of an IUM was the most predictive variable. The presence of an IUM and heavy delayed PPH predicted uterine curettage in 61.3% and 37.5% of patients, respectively. Routine uterine scanning on Day 1 and Day 14 postpartum is an easy, inexpensive, valuable method that can be offered to women at high risk for delayed PPH due to subinvolution or the presence of an IUM. Accordingly, it may be predicted which women will benefit from uterine curettage in up to two-thirds of cases.International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 09/2007; 98(2):93-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2007.03.042 · 1.56 Impact Factor