Cardiovascular health and economic effects of smoke-free workplaces

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States
The American Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.3). 08/2004; 117(1):32-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.02.029
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Smoking is the leading controllable risk factor for heart disease. Only about 69% of U.S. indoor workers are currently covered by a smoke-free workplace policy. This analysis projects the cardiovascular health and economic effects of making all U.S. workplaces smoke free after 1 year and at steady state.
We estimated the number of U.S. indoor workers not covered by smoke-free workplace policies, and the effects of making all workplaces smoke free on smoking behavior and on the relative risks of acute myocardial infarctions and strokes. One-year and steady-state results were calculated using an exponential decline model. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed for a sensitivity analysis.
The first-year effect of making all workplaces smoke free would produce about 1.3 million new quitters and prevent over 950 million cigarette packs from being smoked annually, worth about 2.3 billion dollars in pretax sales to the tobacco industry. In 1 year, making all workplaces smoke free would prevent about 1500 myocardial infarctions and 350 strokes, and result in nearly $60 [corrected] in savings in direct medical costs. At steady state, 6250 myocardial infarctions and 1270 strokes would be prevented, and $279 million [corrected] would be saved in direct medical costs annually. Reductions in passive smoking would account for 60% of effects among acute myocardial infarctions.
Making all U.S. workplaces smoke free would result in considerable health and economic benefits within 1 year. Reductions in passive smoking would account for a majority of these savings. Similar effects would occur with enactment of state or local smoke-free policies.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Asthma is the most common, chronic, childhood disease. Its chronic nature and long-term treatment decrease the quality of life of children and significantly affect the family function. This study was conducted to assess the impact of family empowerment on the quality of life of school-aged children with asthma. Materials and Methods This was a quasi-experimental study. Forty-five asthmatic children (7-11 years) and their parents referred to the Pediatric Asthma Clinic in Masih Daneshvari Hospital were selected using convenience sampling and were randomly divided into case (n = 14) and control (n = 16) groups. Data collection tools included a demographic information questionnaire and Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire with standardized activities (PAQLQ). The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested. The family empowerment program for the intervention group included lectures, group discussions and demonstration of educational films. The questionnaires were filled out pre- and post-test. Results There were no significant differences before the intervention between the test and control groups in terms of demographic characteristics and PAQLQ scores. While, independent t-test showed significant differences between the two groups in PAQLQ total score and the subscale scores before and after the intervention (P < 0.05). Paired t-test showed significant differences before and after the intervention in the case group in terms of PAQLQ total score and the subscale scores (P < 0.001). Conclusion Considering the positive impact of of family empowerment program on the quality of life of school-aged children with asthma, this program is recommended for proper control and management of disease and decreasing the complications in asthmatic patients of all age groups.
    Tanaffos 02/2014; 13(1):35-42.
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    ABSTRACT: Legislations banning smoking in indoor public places and workplaces are being implemented worldwide to protect the population from secondhand smoke exposure. Several studies have reported reductions in hospitalizations for acute coronary events following the enactment of smoke-free laws.
    09/2014; 1(3):239-249. DOI:10.1007/s40572-014-0020-1
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco use is the second cause of death and first cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Smoking in the workplace is particularly concerning. Smoking-free workplaces decrease the risk of exposure of non-smoking personnel to cigarette smoke. Recent studies have mostly focused on the effect of daily or non-occupational stressors (in comparison with occupational stress) on prevalence of smoking. Occupational stress is often evaluated in workplaces for smoking cessation or control programs, but the role of non-occupational stressors is often disregarded in this respect. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an automobile manufacturing company. The response of automotive industry workers to parts of the validated, reliable, Farsi version of Musculoskeletal Intervention Center (MUSIC)-Norrtalje questionnaire was evaluated. A total of 3,536 factory workers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using SPSS and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The correlation of smoking with demographic factors, occupational stressors and life events was evaluated. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting for the confounding factors, cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with age, sex, level of education, job control and life events (P<0.05). The results showed that of occupational and non-occupational stressors, only job control was correlated with cigarette smoking. Non-occupational stressors had greater effect on cigarette smoking. Consideration of both non-occupational and occupational stressors can enhance the success of smoking control programs. On the other hand, a combination of smoking control and stress (occupational and non-occupational) control programs can be more effective than smoking cessation interventions alone.
    Tanaffos 01/2014; 13(2):35-42.

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