Early treatment of migraine with rizatriptan: a placebo-controlled study.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the efficacy of rizatriptan when administered early during a migraine attack.
Several studies indicate that triptans are more efficacious when administered early during a migraine attack, when the pain is still mild.
One hundred and twelve rizatriptan-naïve patients aged 20 to 64 years with a history of migraine with or without aura that progressively worsened when left untreated were instructed to treat a total of three migraine attacks with either rizatriptan 10 mg or placebo as early as possible during each attack. Seventy-four patients (68 women and 6 men) were assigned to use the active drug and 38 (35 women and 3 men) to placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was pain-free response at 2 hours after administration of the study drug. Secondary efficacy measures were pain-free response at 1 hour and sustained pain-free response lasting between 2 and 24 hours.
A total of 216 attacks were treated in the rizatriptan group and 109 in the placebo group. Pain-free response at 2 hours after early treatment was noted in 151 (70%) of attacks in the rizatriptan group and in 24 (22%) in the placebo group (P < .01). Pain-free response at 1 hour occurred in 97 (45%) and 9 (8%) attacks, respectively (P < .01). When the attacks were categorized by headache severity at the time of treatment, the pain-free response at 2 hours was higher for mild attacks than for moderate or severe attacks (P < .01). Sustained pain-free response after treatment was significantly higher for attacks treated with rizatriptan (60%) than for those treated with placebo (17%) (P < .001). Adverse events were observed in 62 patients in the rizatriptan group and 15 in the placebo group. Only 1 patient taking rizatriptan discontinued the study because of adverse events, and no serious adverse events were reported.
Rizatriptan is significantly more likely than placebo to produce a pain-free response within 2 hours when the drug is administered early in the migraine attack, when pain is mild rather than moderate or severe.
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ABSTRACT: Acute migraine treatment is given to abolish ongoing attacks, while prophylactic migraine treatment is given on a daily basis to prevent the occurrence of migraine attacks as far as possible. The majority of migraine patients do not use the specific acute anti-migraine drugs, the triptans. Thus, only 10% (Denmark) to 35% (France) of migraine patients use triptans. This is most likely due to relatively low efficacy. Thus, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) pain freedom after 2 hours ranges from 12% (frovatriptan 2.5 mg) to 40% (rizatriptan 10 mg). For prophylactic treatment (propranolol, valproate, topiramate) a response (at least a 50% reduction in migraine frequency) is observed in 40-50%. In addition, prophylactic treatment is hampered by adverse events and withdrawals. There is a need for new acute anti-migraine drugs and targets are already available and there are more to come. It has been estimated that approximately 2% of the adult population need prophylactic treatment because of frequent migraine attacks. For prophylactic migraine drugs there is an even greater need for new drugs than for acute drug treatment.CNS Drugs 05/2012; 26(5):375-82. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factors that influence a migraineur's beliefs regarding oral triptans for the acute treatment of migraines and to provide further insight into patients' decision-making process when faced with migraine. METHODS: A multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study of subjects currently prescribed an oral triptan medication for the acute treatment of migraine headaches. Subjects were recruited from 6 headache clinics and one primary care practice in the United States. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire that could be completed either at the site as part of the visit or at home. The questionnaire comprised 27 questions assessing demographic characteristics, migraine history, migraine frequency and severity, and general beliefs about migraine treatments. The study population was stratified into 2 cohorts (Early Treatment and Delayed Treatment) based on how they typically use their oral triptan to treat a typical migraine. RESULTS: A total 506 subjects were enrolled in the study, of which 502 were stratified into the Early Treatment cohort (41.2%) and Delayed Treatment cohort (58.8%). Demographic and clinical characteristics were generally similar between the 2 cohorts. In terms of general treatment patterns, there were notable differences between the Delayed and Early Treatment cohorts, with the Delayed Treatment cohort significantly more likely to take an over-the-counter (OTC) or non-triptan medication first (P ≤ .001) and only take a triptan if the OTC or non-triptan medication did not work (P ≤ .001). Furthermore, 55% of the Delayed Treatment cohort delayed taking a triptan to be certain that the headache was a migraine (vs 32% of the Early Treatment cohort; P ≤ .001). When asked to specify the reasons for delaying treatment with a triptan, the Delayed Treatment cohort had, in general, greater concerns about using their oral triptan in comparison with the Early Treatment cohort. In particular, respondents were primarily concerned with running out of their triptan medication with 35% of the Delayed Treatment cohort expressing this concern compared with 22% of the Early Treatment cohort (P ≤ .001). Statistically significant differences were also noted for concerns about taking medications (P ≤ .001), side effects (P ≤ .05), expense (P ≤ .01), and taking prescription medications (P ≤ .001). CONCLUSIONS: Results build upon previously published studies and suggest that patient beliefs directly influence how migraineurs manage their migraines and have implications for patient outcomes. Such insights should be used to facilitate physician-patient communication and reinforce the need for patient-centered care to improve patient outcomes.Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain 06/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective and background is to confirm in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the high triptan response rates we had previously reported in an open study in migraine patients with unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 80 migraineurs with unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms were assigned to receive rizatriptan 10 mg wafer or placebo (ratio 1:1) and treated for a single moderate or severe migraine attack. The primary endpoints were pain freedom at 2 h and total migraine freedom at 2 h. Secondary endpoints included pain relief, no associated symptoms and sustained pain freedom or relief. Significantly more patients reported pain freedom at 2 h after taking rizatriptan (54 %) than after placebo (8 %) (therapeutic gain 46 % [28 %; 64 %]; P < 0.001). Similarly, significantly more patients reported total migraine freedom at 2 h after rizatriptan (51 %) than after placebo (8 %) (therapeutic gain 43 % [26 %; 61 %]; P < 0.001). Rizatriptan was also more effective than placebo on most secondary endpoints. We confirm in a placebo-controlled study our previous data suggesting that the presence of unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms in migraineurs predicts a positive response to triptans, probably owing to intense trigeminal peripheral afferent activation which strongly recruits peripheral neurovascular 5-HT1B/1D receptors. Acute and preventive pharmacological trials in migraine should focus also on this subset of migraine patients.The Journal of Headache and Pain 03/2012; 13(5):407-14. · 2.78 Impact Factor