Calprotectin - a pleiotropic molecule in acute and chronic inflammation.

Department of Immunology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic.
Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca (Impact Factor: 1.49). 02/2004; 53(3):245-53.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Calprotectin (MRP8/14, S100A8/S100A9, 27E10 antigen) is a heterodimer of two calcium-binding proteins present in the cytoplasm of neutrophils and expressed on the membrane of monocytes. Upon neutrophil activation or endothelial adhesion of monocytes, calprotectin is released and may be detected in serum or body fluids as potentially useful clinical inflammatory marker. The soluble form of calprotectin provides both bacteriostatic and cytokine-like effects in the local environment. When calprotectin metabolism is affected on a systemic level, the zinc-binding properties of protein may induce severe dysregulation of zinc homeostasis with severe clinical symptoms. The distribution of membrane form of calprotectin is restricted to monocytes and immature macrophages and the presence of calprotectin-positive infiltrating cells reflects the influx of mononuclear phagocytes to the site of inflammation. Calprotectin expression and release seems to be of particular importance in immune and immunopathological reactions.

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    ABSTRACT: Fecal calprotectin (FC) is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age. Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children's stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The children's weights and lengths were measured. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire regarding several clinical and sociodemographic factors. The FC concentrations were unevenly distributed; the median FC concentration was 174.3 μg/g (range: 6.0-1097.7 μg/g) or 2.241 log10 μg/g (range: 0.775-3.041 log10 μg/g) for all 288 children. The children were divided into several age groups: 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months and 12-18 months. The median FC concentrations for these age groups were 375.2 μg/g (2.574 log10 μg/g), 217.9 μg/g (2.338 log10 μg/g), 127.7 μg/g (2.106 log10 μg/g), 96.1 μg/g (1.983 log10 μg/g) and 104.2 μg/g (2.016 log10 μg/g), respectively. A significant correlation between age and FC concentration was found (r=-0.490, p<0.001). A simple correlation analysis of weight-for-length Z-scores or weight-for-age Z-scores vs. FC concentrations showed that these variables were negatively correlated (Spearman's rho=-0.287, p<0.001; Spearman's rho=-0.243, p<0.001, respectively). The FC levels of children aged 1-18 months exhibit a downward trend with increasing age and are greater than the normal levels observed in healthy adults. In healthy children aged <6 months, FC levels are high. In children aged 6-18 months, FC concentrations are relatively low but are still higher than those of children aged >4 years.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119574. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119574 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At the interface of the external environment and the mucosal surface of the female reproductive tract (FRT) lies a first-line defense against pathogen invasion that includes antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Comprised of a unique class of multifunctional, amphipathic molecules, AMP employ a wide range of functions to limit microbial invasion and replication within host cells as well as independently modulate the immune system, dampen inflammation and maintain tissue homeostasis. The role of AMP in barrier defense at the level of the skin and gut has received much attention as of late. Given the far reaching implications for women's health, maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, and sexually transmissible and polymicrobial diseases, we herein review the distribution and function of key AMP throughout the female reproductive mucosa and assess their role as an essential immunological barrier to microbial invasion throughout the reproductive cycle of a woman's lifetime. A comprehensive search in PubMed/Medline was conducted related to AMP general structure, function, signaling, expression, distribution and barrier function of AMP in the FRT, hormone regulation of AMP, the microbiome of the FRT, and AMP in relation to implantation, pregnancy, fertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, complications of pregnancy and assisted reproductive technology. AMP are amphipathic peptides that target microbes for destruction and have been conserved throughout all living organisms. In the FRT, several major classes of AMP are expressed constitutively and others are inducible at the mucosal epithelium and by immune cells. AMP expression is also under the influence of sex hormones, varying throughout the menstrual cycle, and dependent on the vaginal microbiome. AMP can prevent infection with sexually transmissible and opportunistic pathogens of the female reproductive tissues, although emerging understanding of vaginal dysbiosis suggests induction of a unique AMP profile with increased susceptibility to these pathogens. During pregnancy, AMP are key immune effectors of the fetal membranes and placenta and are dysregulated in states of intrauterine infection and other complications of pregnancy. At the level of the FRT, AMP serve to inhibit infection by sexually and vertically transmissible as well as by opportunistic bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa and must do so throughout the hormone flux of menses and pregnancy. Guarding the exclusive site of reproduction, AMP modulate the vaginal microbiome of the lower FRT to aid in preventing ascending microbes into the upper FRT. Evolving in parallel with, and in response to, pathogenic insults, AMP are relatively immune to the resistance mechanisms employed by rapidly evolving pathogens and play a key role in barrier function and host defense throughout the FRT. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Human Reproduction Update 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/humupd/dmu065 · 8.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Faecal calprotectin (FC), a cytosolic protein released by neutrophils (S100 family) in response to inflammation, is a simple, non-invasive test that can be used to differentiate irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), where there can be considerable symptom overlap. The aims of the study were (1) to be able to predict the ability of FC to exclude IBD and determine cut-offs when in remission, (2) to investigate the effects of time and temperature on stability of FC and (3) compare three ELISA kits to measure FC: Buhlmann, PhiCal v1 and PhiCal v2. A total of 311 patients with altered bowel habit were tested for FC; 144 with IBS, 148 with IBD and 19 with other organic causes. Sensitivity and specificity of FC (with PhiCal v2 kit) to distinguish between functional disorder (IBS) and IBD using cut-off 50 μg/g were 88% and 78%, respectively, with a negative predictive value of 87%. Area under the receiver operating curve was 0.84 (CI 0.78 to 0.90). For those with IBD, FC values below 250 μg/g corresponded with remission of disease with a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 76%, respectively. Area under the receiver operating curve was 0.93 (CI 0.89 to 0.97). FC was stable once extracted and frozen for up to 2.5 months. Pearson correlation was good between Buhlmann assay and PhiCal v2 (r(2) = 0.95). FC has up to 87% negative predictive value to exclude IBD, and cut-offs less than 250 μg/g had 90% sensitivity to determine remission in IBD. Once frozen, FC is stable and the ELISA monoclonal plates were broadly comparable.
    01/2015; 6(1):14-19. DOI:10.1136/flgastro-2013-100420

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