Calprotectin - A pleiotropic molecule in acute and chronic inflammation

Department of Immunology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic.
Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca (Impact Factor: 1.29). 02/2004; 53(3):245-53.
Source: PubMed


Calprotectin (MRP8/14, S100A8/S100A9, 27E10 antigen) is a heterodimer of two calcium-binding proteins present in the cytoplasm of neutrophils and expressed on the membrane of monocytes. Upon neutrophil activation or endothelial adhesion of monocytes, calprotectin is released and may be detected in serum or body fluids as potentially useful clinical inflammatory marker. The soluble form of calprotectin provides both bacteriostatic and cytokine-like effects in the local environment. When calprotectin metabolism is affected on a systemic level, the zinc-binding properties of protein may induce severe dysregulation of zinc homeostasis with severe clinical symptoms. The distribution of membrane form of calprotectin is restricted to monocytes and immature macrophages and the presence of calprotectin-positive infiltrating cells reflects the influx of mononuclear phagocytes to the site of inflammation. Calprotectin expression and release seems to be of particular importance in immune and immunopathological reactions.

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Article: Calprotectin - A pleiotropic molecule in acute and chronic inflammation

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    • "cancer suggests that S100A8/A9 may play a key role in inflammation-associated cancer (Striz et al., 2004; Gebhardt et al., 2008). Calprotectin is resistant to enzymatic degradation and can be easily measured in stools. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Calprotectin in feces seems to be a more sensitive marker for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers than fecal occult blood, but its specificity may be too low for screening average risk populations. This study aims at evaluating the diagnostic value of fecal calprotectin as a screening biomarker for GI malignancies. Materials and methods: In a case-control study, 100 patients with GI malignancies (50 patients with colorectal cancer and 50 patients with gastric cancer) and 50 controls were recruited in Tabriz Imam Reza and Sina hospitals during a 24-month period. One to two weeks after the last endoscopy/colonoscopy, fecal specimens were collected by the patients and examined by ELISA method for quantitative measurement of calprotectin content. The results were compared between the three groups. Results: The mean fecal calprotectin level was 109.1 ± 105.3 (2.3-454.3, median:74), 241.1 ± 205.2 (3.4-610.0, median:19.3) and 45.9 ± 55.1 μg/g (1.3-257.1, median:19.3) in gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and control group, respectively, the differences being significant (p<0.001) and remaining after adjustment for age. The optimal cut-off point for fecal calprotectin was ≥ 75.8 μg/g for distinguishing colorectal cancer from normal cases (sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 84%, respectively). This value was ≥ 41.9 μg/g for distinguishing gastric cancer from normal cases (sensitivity and specificity of 62%). Conclusions: Our results revealed that fecal calprotectin might be a useful and non-invasive biomarker for distinguishing colorectal cancer from non-malignant GI conditions. However, due to low sensitivity and specificity, this biomarker may not help physicians distinguishing gastric cancer cases from healthy subjects.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 02/2014; 15(4):1667-1670. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.4.1667 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    • "Both hormones have some immunomodulatory effects and counteract each other with regard to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β on human lymphocytes in vitro[4]. On the other hand, inflammation decreases serum ghrelin levels [5] and increases serum leptin levels [6]. Calprotectin has been recognized as a promising marker of inflammation [7,8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Appetite-modulating hormones ghrelin and leptin might be relevant to asthma with their pro-inflammatory effects, and calprotectin has been recognized as a promising marker of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to explore whether asthma, atopy and lung functions has a relation with serum levels of leptin, ghrelin and calprotectin as inflammatory markers in children. A cross-sectional study was performed by searching the doctor diagnosed asthma through questionnaires filled in by parents who were phoned, and children were invited to supply fasting blood samples in order to measure serum levels of leptin, ghrelin and calprotectin, and to perform skin prick test and spirometry. Participants were divided into Group 1, children with previous diagnosis of asthma, and Group 2, children without previous diagnosis of asthma. One thousand and two hundred questionnaires were distributed and 589 of them were returned filled in. Out of 74 children whose parents accepted to participate in the study, 23 were in Group 1 and 51 were in Group 2. There was no statistical difference in serum levels of leptin, ghrelin, calprotectin, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) , forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75) values , and skin prick test results between the two groups (p values are 0.39, 0.72, 0.5, 0.17, 0.5, 0.27, 0.18, and 0.81 respectively). In this study the inflammation in asthmatic children could not be shown by using serum leptin, ghrelin and calprotectin levels and this is possibly due to the low number of children with ever asthma and equal skin prick test positivity in both groups. This study is the first study aimed to show the relation between serum calprotectin levels and inflammation in asthma. As this study was a cross-sectional study, further prospectively designed randomized controlled studies are necessary to show the association of these markers and inflammation in asthma.
    Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine 09/2013; 8(1):62. DOI:10.1186/2049-6958-8-62 · 0.15 Impact Factor
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    • "CP is mainly exhibited in the cytoplasm of neutrophils (about 5% of their total protein contents [1, 4] and 30–60% of their cytosolic protein [2]). It is not only expressed on activated monocytes and macrophages (about 1% of all monocyte cytosol protein) [3, 4] but can also be produced by bone marrow cells, squamous epithelium (keratinizing and nonkeratinizing), some mucosal epithelial cells, microvascular endothelial cells, fibroblasts, generally as a result of activation [1, 2, 5]. CP has antibacterial [1–3, 6], apoptosis-inducing [1–3, 6, 7] and chemotactic activities [1, 7–9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Calprotectin (CP) is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein of the S100 family expressed mainly by neutrophils with important extracellular activity. The aim of the current review is to summarize the latest findings concerning the role of CP in a diverse range of inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions among children. Increasing evidence suggests the implication of CP in the diagnosis, followup, assessment of relapses, and response to treatment in pediatric pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, celiac disease, intestinal cystic fibrosis, acute appendicitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Kawasaki disease, polymyositis-dermatomyositis, glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, malaria, HIV infection, hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia, and cancer. Further studies are required to provide insights into the actual role of CP in these pathological processes in pediatrics.
    09/2013; 2013:542363. DOI:10.1155/2013/542363
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