In vitro studies, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical use of a high purity double virus inactivated FVIII/VWF concentrate (Immunate) in the treatment of von Willebrand disease.
ABSTRACT Patients with type 2 and 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD) are treated with factor VIII/VWF concentrate in case of bleeding or surgery. Immunate (Baxter, Vienna, Austria) is a double virus inactivated FVIII/VWF concentrate and is registered in several countries for patients with VWD with reduced FVIII levels. We performed an in vitro, a pharmacokinetic and a clinical study to evaluate Immunate in VWD. In vitro studies showed a significant variation in VWF levels in 9 different batches. The median (range) values (in IU/mL) were 1.10 (0.98-1.30) for FVIII:C, 1.34 (0.95-1.61) for VWF:Ag, 0.60 (0.27-1.08) for VWF:CBA and 0.73 (0.59-0.94) for VWF:RCo. The relatively low VWF activity is mainly due to the lack of high molecular weight multimers (HMWM), as determined by electrophoresis. A pharmacokinetic study showed, based on a content of FVIII:C of 1 U/mL, in vivo recoveries (%) of 106 (56-150) (median and range) for FVIII:C, 105 (62-187) for VWF:Ag, 25 (7-41) for VWF:CBA and 43 (11-76) for VWF:RCo. Half-lives were 14.1 h (7.4-36.9) for FVIII:C, 10.8 h (7.7-26.2) for VWF:Ag, 15.3 h (7.8-44.6) for VWF:CBA and 16.4 h (4.2-26.5) for VWF:RCo. In a clinical study efficacy was determined after infusion given before surgery or dental extractions in ten patients. In two patients the hemostatic response was classified as inadequate. In conclusion, there is a wide variability in VWF concentration and activity in various batches of Immunate. In the clinical study in which the dosage was based on FVIII:C contents of the concentrate, two out of ten patients had an insufficient haemostatic response. Therefore dosing of Immunate dosing should not be based on FVIII:C levels, but should be based on VWF activity of the individual batches. Future studies using a VWF activity-guided dosage regimen have to be performed to establish the efficacy of Immunate in the treatment of von Willebrand disease.
Article: Guidelines for the evaluation of intravenous desmopressin and von Willebrand factor/factor VIII concentrate in the treatment and prophylaxis of bleedings in von Willebrand disease types 1, 2, and 3.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The current standard for the diagnosis and management of patients with congenital von Willebrand disease (vWD) includes bleeding times (BTs), PFA-100 closure time (PFA-CT), factor (F) VIII:coagulant activity (C), vWF:antigen (Ag), vWF:ristocetin cofactor activity (RCo), a sensitive vWF:collagen-binding activity (CB), ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA), analysis of vWF multimers in low- and high-resolution agarose gels, and the response to desmopressin. Guidelines and recommendations for prophylaxis and treatment of bleedings in vWD patients with vWF/FVIII concentrates should be derived from analysis of the content of these concentrates and from pharmacokinetic studies in different types of vWD patients with severe type 1, 2, or 3 vWD. The vWF/FVIII concentrates should be characterized by labeling with FVIII:C, vWF:RCo, vWF:CB, and vWF multimeric pattern, which will determine their predicted efficacy and safety in prospective management studies. Because the bleeding tendency is moderate in type 2 and severe in type 3 vWD, and because the FVIII:C levels are subnormal in type 2 and very low in type 3 vWD patients, new guidelines using vWF:RCo unit dosing for the prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding episodes are proposed. Such guidelines should be stratified for the severity of bleeding, the type of surgery (either minor or major), and also for the severity and type of vWD (i.e., either type 2 or 3 vWD).Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 10/2006; 32(6):636-45. · 4.52 Impact Factor