A comparative karyological study of the blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis, Phasianidae) and California quail (Callipepla californica, Odontophoridae).
ABSTRACT We conducted comparative chromosome painting and chromosome mapping with chicken DNA probes against the blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis, CCH) and California quail (Callipepla californica, CCA), which are classified into the Old World quail and the New World quail, respectively. Each chicken probe of chromosomes 1-9 and Z painted a pair of chromosomes in the blue-breasted quail. In California quail, chicken chromosome 2 probe painted chromosomes 3 and 6, and chicken chromosome 4 probe painted chromosomes 4 and a pair of microchromosomes. Comparison of the cytogenetic maps of the two quail species with those of chicken and Japanese quail revealed that there are several intrachromosomal rearrangements, pericentric and/or paracentric inversions, in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 between chicken and the Old World quail. In addition, a pericentric inversion was found in chromosome 8 between chicken and the three quail species. Ordering of the Z-linked DNA clones revealed the presence of multiple rearrangements in the Z chromosomes of the three quail species. Comparing these results with the molecular phylogeny of Galliformes species, it was also cytogenetically supported that the New World quail is classified into a different clade from the lineage containing chicken and the Old World quail.
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ABSTRACT: It is generally believed that the organization of avian genomes remains highly conserved in evolution as chromosome number is constant and comparative chromosome painting demonstrated there to be very few interchromosomal rearrangements. The recent sequencing of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome allowed an assessment of the number of intrachromosomal rearrangements between it and the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, revealing a surprisingly high number of intrachromosomal rearrangements. With the publication of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genome it has become possible to describe intrachromosomal rearrangements between these three important avian species, gain insight into the direction of evolutionary change and assess whether breakpoint regions are reused in birds. To this end, we aligned entire chromosomes between chicken, turkey and zebra finch, identifying syntenic blocks of at least 250 kb. Potential optimal pathways of rearrangements between each of the three genomes were determined, as was a potential Galliform ancestral organization. From this, our data suggest that around one-third of chromosomal breakpoint regions may recur during avian evolution, with 10% of breakpoints apparently recurring in different lineages. This agrees with our previous hypothesis that mechanisms of genome evolution are driven by hotspots of non-allelic homologous recombination.Heredity 11/2011; 108(1):37-41. · 4.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Birds have female heterogamety with Z and W sex chromosomes. These evolved from different autosomal precursor chromosomes than the mammalian X and Y. However, previous work has suggested that the pattern and process of sex chromosome evolution show many similarities across distantly related organisms. Here we show that stepwise restriction of recombination between the protosex chromosomes of birds has resulted in regions of the chicken Z chromosome showing discrete levels of divergence from W homologs (gametologs). The 12 genes analyzed fall into three levels of estimated divergence values, with the most recent divergence (d(S) = 0.18-0.21) displayed by 6 genes in a region on the Z chromosome corresponding to the interval 1-11 Mb of the assembled genome sequence. Another 4 genes show intermediate divergence (d(S) = 0.27-0.38) and are located in the interval 16-53 Mb. Two genes (at positions 42 and 50 Mb) with higher d(S) values are located proximal to the most distal of the 4 genes with intermediate divergence, suggesting an inversion event. The distribution of genes and their divergence indicate at least three evolutionary strata, with estimated times for cessation of recombination between Z and W of 132-150 (stratum 1), 71-99 (stratum 2), and 47-57 (stratum 3) million years ago. An inversion event, or some other form of intrachromosomal rearrangement, subsequent to the formation of strata 1 and 2 has scrambled the gene order to give rise to the nonlinear arrangement of evolutionary strata currently seen on the chicken Z chromosome. These observations suggest that the progressive restriction of recombination is an integral feature of sex chromosome evolution and occurs also in systems of female heterogamety.Genetics 10/2008; 180(2):1131-6. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The chicken is the most extensively studied species in birds and thus constitutes an ideal reference for comparative genomics in birds. Comparative cytogenetic studies indicate that the chicken has retained many chromosome characters of the ancestral avian karyotype. The homology between chicken macrochromosomes (1-9 and Z) and their counterparts in more than 40 avian species of 10 different orders has been established by chromosome painting. However, the avian homologues of chicken microchromosomes remain to be defined. Moreover, no reciprocal chromosome painting in birds has been performed due to the lack of chromosome-specific probes from other avian species. Here we have generated a set of chromosome-specific paints using flow cytometry that cover the whole genome of the stone curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus, Charadriiformes), a species with one of the lowest diploid number so far reported in birds, as well as paints from more microchromosomes of the chicken. A genome-wide comparative map between the chicken and the stone curlew has been constructed for the first time based on reciprocal chromosome painting. The results indicate that extensive chromosome fusions underlie the sharp decrease in the diploid number in the stone curlew. To a lesser extent, chromosome fissions and inversions occurred also during the evolution of the stone curlew. It is anticipated that this complete set of chromosome painting probes from the first Neoaves species will become an invaluable tool for avian comparative cytogenetics.Chromosome Research 02/2009; 17(1):99-113. · 2.85 Impact Factor