A comparative karyological study of the blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis, Phasianidae) and California quail (Callipepla californica, Odontophoridae)

Laboratory of Cytogenetics, Division of Bioscience, Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research (Impact Factor: 1.91). 02/2004; 106(1):82-90. DOI: 10.1159/000078569
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We conducted comparative chromosome painting and chromosome mapping with chicken DNA probes against the blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis, CCH) and California quail (Callipepla californica, CCA), which are classified into the Old World quail and the New World quail, respectively. Each chicken probe of chromosomes 1-9 and Z painted a pair of chromosomes in the blue-breasted quail. In California quail, chicken chromosome 2 probe painted chromosomes 3 and 6, and chicken chromosome 4 probe painted chromosomes 4 and a pair of microchromosomes. Comparison of the cytogenetic maps of the two quail species with those of chicken and Japanese quail revealed that there are several intrachromosomal rearrangements, pericentric and/or paracentric inversions, in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 between chicken and the Old World quail. In addition, a pericentric inversion was found in chromosome 8 between chicken and the three quail species. Ordering of the Z-linked DNA clones revealed the presence of multiple rearrangements in the Z chromosomes of the three quail species. Comparing these results with the molecular phylogeny of Galliformes species, it was also cytogenetically supported that the New World quail is classified into a different clade from the lineage containing chicken and the Old World quail.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many families of centromeric repetitive DNA sequences isolated from Struthioniformes, Galliformes, Falconiformes, and Passeriformes are localized primarily to microchromosomes. However, it is unclear whether chromosome size-correlated homogenization is a common characteristic of centromeric repetitive sequences in Aves. New World and Old World quails have the typical avian karyotype comprising chromosomes of two distinct sizes, and C-positive heterochromatin is distributed in centromeric regions of most autosomes and the whole W chromosome. We isolated six types of centromeric repetitive sequences from three New World quail species (Colinus virginianus, CVI; Callipepla californica, CCA; and Callipepla squamata, CSQ; Odontophoridae) and one Old World quail species (Alectoris chukar, ACH; Phasianidae), and characterized the sequences by nucleotide sequencing, chromosome in situ hybridization, and filter hybridization. The 385-bp CVI-MspI, 591-bp CCA-BamHI, 582-bp CSQ-BamHI, and 366-bp ACH-Sau3AI fragments exhibited tandem arrays of the monomer unit, and the 224-bp CVI-HaeIII and 135-bp CCA-HaeIII fragments were composed of minisatellite-like and microsatellite-like repeats, respectively. ACH-Sau3AI was a homolog of the chicken nuclear membrane repeat sequence, whose homologs are common in Phasianidae. CVI-MspI, CCA-BamHI, and CSQ-BamHI showed high homology and were specific to the Odontophoridae. CVI-MspI was localized to microchromosomes, whereas CVI-HaeIII, CCA-BamHI, and CSQ-BamHI were mapped to almost all chromosomes. CCA-HaeIII was localized to five pairs of macrochromosomes and most microchromosomes. ACH-Sau3AI was distributed in three pairs of macrochromosomes and all microchromosomes. Centromeric repetitive sequences may be homogenized in chromosome size-correlated and -uncorrelated manners in New World quails, although there may be a mechanism that causes homogenization of centromeric repetitive sequences primarily between microchromosomes, which is commonly observed in phasianid birds.
    Chromosome Research 02/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10577-014-9402-3 · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The karyotype of the Japanese mountain hawk-eagle (Nisaetus nipalensis orientalis) (2n = 66) consists of a large number of medium-sized and small chromosomes but only 4 pairs of dot-shaped microchromosomes, in contrast to the typical avian karyotype with a small number of macrochromosomes and many indistinguishable microchromosomes. To investigate the drastic karyotype reorganization in this species, we performed a molecular cytogenetic characterization employing chromosome in situ hybridization and molecular cloning of centromeric heterochromatin. Cross-species chromosome painting with chicken chromosome-specific probes 1-9 and Z and a paint pool of 20 microchromosome pairs revealed that the N. n. orientalis karyotype differs from chicken by at least 13 fissions of macrochromosomes and 15 fusions between microchromosomes and between micro- and macrochromosomes. A novel family of satellite DNA sequences (NNO-ApaI) was isolated, consisting of a GC-rich 173-bp repeated sequence element. The NNO-ApaI sequence was localized to the C-positive centromeric heterochromatin of 4 pairs of microchromosomes, which evolved concertedly by homogenization between the microchromosomes. These results suggest that the 4 pairs of dot-shaped microchromosomes have retained their genomic compartmentalization from other middle-sized and small chromosomes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cytogenetic and Genome Research 07/2013; 141(4). DOI:10.1159/000352067 · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is generally believed that the organization of avian genomes remains highly conserved in evolution as chromosome number is constant and comparative chromosome painting demonstrated there to be very few interchromosomal rearrangements. The recent sequencing of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome allowed an assessment of the number of intrachromosomal rearrangements between it and the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, revealing a surprisingly high number of intrachromosomal rearrangements. With the publication of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genome it has become possible to describe intrachromosomal rearrangements between these three important avian species, gain insight into the direction of evolutionary change and assess whether breakpoint regions are reused in birds. To this end, we aligned entire chromosomes between chicken, turkey and zebra finch, identifying syntenic blocks of at least 250 kb. Potential optimal pathways of rearrangements between each of the three genomes were determined, as was a potential Galliform ancestral organization. From this, our data suggest that around one-third of chromosomal breakpoint regions may recur during avian evolution, with 10% of breakpoints apparently recurring in different lineages. This agrees with our previous hypothesis that mechanisms of genome evolution are driven by hotspots of non-allelic homologous recombination.
    Heredity 11/2011; 108(1):37-41. DOI:10.1038/hdy.2011.99 · 3.80 Impact Factor