We conducted comparative chromosome painting and chromosome mapping with chicken DNA probes against the blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis, CCH) and California quail (Callipepla californica, CCA), which are classified into the Old World quail and the New World quail, respectively. Each chicken probe of chromosomes 1-9 and Z painted a pair of chromosomes in the blue-breasted quail. In California quail, chicken chromosome 2 probe painted chromosomes 3 and 6, and chicken chromosome 4 probe painted chromosomes 4 and a pair of microchromosomes. Comparison of the cytogenetic maps of the two quail species with those of chicken and Japanese quail revealed that there are several intrachromosomal rearrangements, pericentric and/or paracentric inversions, in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 between chicken and the Old World quail. In addition, a pericentric inversion was found in chromosome 8 between chicken and the three quail species. Ordering of the Z-linked DNA clones revealed the presence of multiple rearrangements in the Z chromosomes of the three quail species. Comparing these results with the molecular phylogeny of Galliformes species, it was also cytogenetically supported that the New World quail is classified into a different clade from the lineage containing chicken and the Old World quail.
"Despite the apparent conservatism of avian chromosomes, rearrangements such as chromosomal fusions and fissions have been uncovered using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, 2n=78) chromosomes 1–9 and Z paint probes. So far, more than 40 avian species, which belong to 10 orders, have been investigated by this approach (Shetty et al. 1999; Schmid et al. 2000; Raudsepp et al. 2002; Shibusawa et al. 2002, 2004a, b, Guttenbach et al. 2003; Kasai et al. 2003; Derjusheva et al. 2004; Itoh and Arnold 2005; de Oliveira et al. 2005; Nanda et al. 2006, 2007; Nishida-Umehara et al. 2007; Nishida et al. 2008), providing insights into avian karyotype evolution and phylogenetic relationships (reviewed in Griffin et al. 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chicken is the most extensively studied species in birds and thus constitutes an ideal reference for comparative genomics in birds. Comparative cytogenetic studies indicate that the chicken has retained many chromosome characters of the ancestral avian karyotype. The homology between chicken macrochromosomes (1-9 and Z) and their counterparts in more than 40 avian species of 10 different orders has been established by chromosome painting. However, the avian homologues of chicken microchromosomes remain to be defined. Moreover, no reciprocal chromosome painting in birds has been performed due to the lack of chromosome-specific probes from other avian species. Here we have generated a set of chromosome-specific paints using flow cytometry that cover the whole genome of the stone curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus, Charadriiformes), a species with one of the lowest diploid number so far reported in birds, as well as paints from more microchromosomes of the chicken. A genome-wide comparative map between the chicken and the stone curlew has been constructed for the first time based on reciprocal chromosome painting. The results indicate that extensive chromosome fusions underlie the sharp decrease in the diploid number in the stone curlew. To a lesser extent, chromosome fissions and inversions occurred also during the evolution of the stone curlew. It is anticipated that this complete set of chromosome painting probes from the first Neoaves species will become an invaluable tool for avian comparative cytogenetics.
Chromosome Research 02/2009; 17(1):99-113. DOI:10.1007/s10577-009-9021-6 · 2.48 Impact Factor
"Lately, chromosome-specific DNA painting probes for chromosomes 1-9 and Z and fractions of microchromosomes have been developed in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) (Griffin et al. 1999, Habermann et al. 2001, Masabanda et al. 2004). To date, comparative chromosome painting with the chicken probes has been performed for a total of 40 species from 10 orders (Shetty et al. 1999, Schmid et al. 2000, Raudsepp et al. 2002, Guttenbach et al. 2003, Kasai et al. 2003, Derjusheva et al. 2004, Shibusawa et al. 2004a, b, de Oliveria et al. 2005, Itoh & Arnold 2005, Nanda et al. 2006, 2007, Griffin et al. 2007, Nishida-Umehara et al. 2007). These results revealed that the avian karyotypes are highly conserved at the molecular level, and that the typical avian karyotype with a small number of macrochromosomes and a large number of microchromosomes is mostly conserved and hence representative of the ancestral state. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Karyotypes of most bird species are characterized by around 2n = 80 chromosomes, comprising 7-10 pairs of large- and medium-sized macrochromosomes including sex chromosomes and numerous morphologically indistinguishable microchromosomes. The Falconinae of the Falconiformes has a different karyotype from the typical avian karyotype in low chromosome numbers, little size difference between macrochromosomes and a smaller number of microchromosomes. To characterize chromosome structures of Falconinae and to delineate the chromosome rearrangements that occurred in this subfamily, we conducted comparative chromosome painting with chicken chromosomes 1-9 and Z probes and microchromosome-specific probes, and chromosome mapping of the 18S-28S rRNA genes and telomeric (TTAGGG)( n ) sequences for common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (2n = 52), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) (2n = 50) and merlin (Falco columbarius) (2n = 40). F. tinnunculus had the highest number of chromosomes and was considered to retain the ancestral karyotype of Falconinae; one and six centric fusions might have occurred in macrochromosomes of F. peregrinus and F. columbarius, respectively. Tandem fusions of microchromosomes to macrochromosomes and between microchromosomes were also frequently observed, and chromosomal locations of the rRNA genes ranged from two to seven pairs of chromosomes. These karyotypic features of Falconinae were relatively different from those of Accipitridae, indicating that the drastic chromosome rearrangements occurred independently in the lineages of Accipitridae and Falconinae.
Chromosome Research 02/2008; 16(1):171-81. DOI:10.1007/s10577-007-1210-6 · 2.48 Impact Factor
"This approach is also informative to delineate large interspecies genomic rearrangements during evolution, particularly among cytologically poorly surveyed species. Chicken macrochromosome-specific paints have been used successfully to illustrate synteny conservation at the whole chromosome level across diverse avian orders (Shetty et al., 1999; Raudsepp et al., 2002; Guttenbach et al., 2003; Kasai et al., 2003; Derjusheva et al., 2004; Shibusawa et al., 2004a, b; Nanda et al., 2006). Since the chicken karyotype is considered to have retained the ancestral avian karyotype, crossspecies hybridization using chicken chromosome paints is of great importance to trace the ancestral chromosome organization among modern birds. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parrots (order: Psittaciformes) are the most common captive birds and have attracted human fascination since ancient times because of their remarkable intelligence and ability to imitate human speech. However, their genome organization, evolution and genomic relation with other birds are poorly understood. Chromosome painting with DNA probes derived from the flow-sorted macrochromosomes (1-10) of chicken (Gallus gallus, GGA) has been used to identify and distinguish the homoeologous chromosomal segments in three species of parrots, i.e., Agapornis roseicollis (peach-faced lovebird); Nymphicus hollandicus (cockatiel) and Melopsittacus undulatus (budgerigar). The ten GGA macrochromosome paints unequivocally recognize 14 to 16 hybridizing regions delineating the conserved chromosomal segments for the respective chicken macrochromosomes in these representative parrot species. The cross-species chromosome painting results show that, unlike in many other avian karyotypes with high homology to chicken chromosomes, dramatic rearrangements of the macrochromosomes have occurred in parrot lineages. Among the larger GGA macrochromosomes (1-5), chromosomes 1 and 4 are conserved on two chromosomes in all three species. However, the hybridization pattern for GGA 4 in A. roseicollis and M. undulatus is in sharp contrast to the most common pattern known from hybridization of chicken macrochromosome 4 in other avian karyotypes. With the exception of A. roseicollis, chicken chromosomes 2, 3 and 5 hybridized either completely or partially to a single chromosome. In contrast, the smaller GGA macrochromosomes 6, 7 and 8 displayed a complex hybridization pattern: two or three of these macrochromosomes were found to be contiguously arranged on a single chromosome in all three parrot species. Overall, the study shows that translocations and fusions in conjunction with intragenomic rearrangements have played a major role in the karyotype evolution of parrots. Our inter-species chromosome painting results unequivocally illustrate the dynamic reshuffling of ancestral chromosomes among the karyotypes of Psittaciformes.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2007; 117(1-4):43-53. DOI:10.1159/000103164 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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