Splenectomy for adult patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a systematic review to assess long-term platelet count responses, prediction of response, and surgical complications

Hematology-Oncology Section, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 12/2004; 104(9):2623-34. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2004-03-1168
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Splenectomy has been a standard treatment for adult patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) for more than 50 years. However, the durability of responses, the ability to predict who will respond, and the frequency of surgical complications with splenectomy all remain uncertain. To better interpret current knowledge we systematically identified and reviewed all 135 case series, 1966 to 2004, that described 15 or more consecutive patients who had splenectomy for ITP and that had data for 1 of these 3 outcomes. Complete response was defined as a normal platelet count following splenectomy and for the duration of follow-up with no additional treatment. Forty-seven case series reported complete response in 1731 (66%) of 2623 adult patients with follow-up for 1 to 153 months; complete response rates did not correlate with duration of follow-up (r = -0.103, P = .49). None of 12 preoperative characteristics that have been reported consistently predicted response to splenectomy. Mortality was 1.0% (48 of 4955 patients) with laparotomy and 0.2% (3 of 1301 patients) with laparoscopy. Complication rates were 12.9% (318 of 2465) with laparotomy and 9.6% (88 of 921 patients) with laparoscopic splenectomy. Although the risk of surgery is an important consideration, splenectomy provides a high frequency of durable responses for adult patients with ITP.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Laparoscopic splenectomy has been proposed to be the standard therapy for adult patients with medically refractory immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). However, due to inconsistent definitions of response, variable rates of long term response have been reported. Furthermore, new medical treatment options are currently challenging the role of splenectomy. The aims of this study were to (1) analyze long term response after splenectomy according to recently defined consensus criteria, (2) identify possible predictive response factors. Methods: A case series of 72 consecutive patients with ITP undergoing laparoscopic splenectomy was retrospectively studied using univariate and multivariate analysis as well as logrank tests. Results: Median follow-up was 32 (2-110) months. Mortality was 0% and morbidity was 8.2%. Response to splenectomy was achieved in of 63/72 patients (87.5%). Loss of response occurred in 19/63 (30.2%) in median after 3 (range 2-42) months. Preoperative platelet counts after boosting with steroids and immunoglobulins as well as the postoperative rise in platelet counts were statistically significant factors for response upon both univariate and multivariate analysis, whereas age, gender, body mass index, ASA classification, disease duration, accessory spleens, splenic weight, conversion to open surgery, or perioperative complications were not. Patients with a postoperative rise in platelet counts >150,000/μL had a significant better chance on stable long term response than those with a smaller increment (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Laparoscopic splenectomy is an effective and safe treatment option in order to obtain stable long term response in patients with ITP. Perioperative platelet counts are predictive factors of long term response. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease in which the platelet count falls to <100¿×¿109/L. Corticosteroids are recommended as the first-line treatment, splenectomy is recommended as the second-line treatment, and thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) and rituximab are recommended as the third-line treatments for ITP in Japanese ITP treatment guidelines. However, in Japan, rituximab is not eligible for reimbursement for the treatment of ITP. The cost-effectiveness of ITP treatment has not been investigated in Japan. Therefore, in this study, the cost-effectiveness of adding rituximab treatment to the existing treatments indicated for ITP in Japan, namely splenectomy and the TPO-RA romiplostim, was investigated based on the scenario that rituximab is eligible for reimbursement in Japan as a treatment for ITP.Methods The efficacy endpoint was set as the number of years with a platelet count ¿30¿×¿109/L. The analysis was conducted from the healthcare payer¿s perspective. If the first treatment is ineffective or relapse occurs, then the patient is given the following treatment. The analyzed treatment order consisted of three patterns: splenectomy-romiplostim (sequence 1), splenectomy-romiplostim-rituximab (sequence 2), and splenectomy-rituximab-romiplostim (sequence 3). A Markov model was built for ITP, and the analysis period was set as 2 years. The discount rate was an annual rate of 2%.Sensitivity analyses of the efficacy of splenectomy, romiplostim, and rituximab; treatment cost; and romiplostim dose were performed.ResultsThe expected costs per patient over a 2-year period for sequences 1, 2, and 3 were USD 40,980, USD 39,822, and USD 33,551, respectively. The expected years with a platelet count ¿30¿×¿109/L for the three sequences were 1.75, 1.79, and 1.78 years, respectively. The sensitivity analyses illustrated that the results of the base case analysis were robust.Conclusions Adding rituximab to standard treatment for ITP (sequences 2¿3) is less costly and marginally more effective than standard therapy in adults. According to the study results, if rituximab is reimbursed for the treatment of ITP in Japan, medical expenses are expected to decline.
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    ABSTRACT: Ligation of splenic artery (LSA) is used for the treatment of liver cirrhosis with hypersplenism. However, hypersplenism is not significantly improved following LSA treatment in some cases, and there are few reports of retreatment of hypersplenism after LSA. We report the case of a 47-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and hypersplenism who underwent LSA treatment, but did not significantly improve. Laboratory tests revealed severe leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Celiac computed tomography arteriogram and digital subtraction angiography revealed two compensatory arteries connected to the hilar splenic artery from the left gastro-epiploic artery and from the dorsal pancreatic artery. Partial splenic embolization (PSE) was performed through the compensatory arteries. As a result, the patient achieved partial splenic ischemic infarction, and white blood cell and platelet counts rose and remained in the normal range. PSE is an effective therapeutic modality for the retreatment of hypersplenism when other modalities have failed.