Proteomic characterization of postmortem amyloid plaques isolated by laser capture microdissection
ABSTRACT The presence of amyloid plaques in the brain is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report here a comprehensive proteomic analysis of senile plaques from postmortem AD brain tissues. Senile plaques labeled with thioflavin-S were procured by laser capture microdissection, and their protein components were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 488 proteins co-isolated with the plaques, and we found multiple phosphorylation sites on the neurofilament intermediate chain, implicating the complexity and diversity of cellular processes involved in the plaque formation. More significantly, we identified 26 proteins enriched in the plaques of two AD cases by quantitative comparison with surrounding non-plaque tissues. The localization of several proteins in the plaques was further confirmed by the approach of immunohistochemistry. In addition to previously identified plaque constituents, we discovered novel association of dynein heavy chain with the plaques in human postmortem brain and in a double transgenic AD mouse model, suggesting that neuronal transport may play a role in neuritic degeneration. Overall, our results revealed for the first time the sub-proteome of amyloid plaques that is important for further studies on disease biomarker identification and molecular mechanisms of AD pathogenesis.
SourceAvailable from: M. Mahafuzur Rahman[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The progressive neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease is believed to be linked to the presence of prefibrillar aggregates of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain. The exact role of these aggregates in the disease pathology is, however, still an open question. Any mechanism by which oligomeric Aβ may cause damage to neuronal cells must, in one way or another, involve interactions with other molecules. Here, we identify proteins in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid that bind to stable protofibrils formed by an engineered variant of Aβ42 (Aβ42CC). We find that the protofibrils attract a substantial number of protein binding partners. Many of the 101 identified proteins are involved in lipid transport and metabolism, the complement system or in hemostasis. Binding of representative proteins from all these groups with micromolar affinity was confirmed using surface plasmon resonance. In addition, binding of apolipoprotein E to the protofibrils with nanomolar affinity was demonstrated. We also find that aggregation of Aβ enhances protein binding, as lower amounts of proteins bind monomeric Aβ. Proteins that bind to Aβ protofibrils might contribute to biological effects that these aggregates are involved in. Our results therefore suggest that improved understanding of the mechanisms by which Aβ causes cytotoxicity and neurodegeneration might be gained from studies carried out in biologically relevant matrices in which Aβ-binding proteins are present.ACS Chemical Biology 12/2014; DOI:10.1021/cb5008663 · 5.36 Impact Factor
Non-fibrillar Amyloidogenic Protein Assemblies—Common Cytotoxins Underlying Degenerative Diseases, Edited by Farid Rahimi, Gal Bitan, 01/2012: chapter Overview of fibrillar and oligomeric assemblies of amyloidogenic proteins: pages 1-36; Springer., ISBN: 9789400727731
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The amyloid-β peptide is considered as a key player in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although good evidence exists that amyloid-β accumulates inside cells, intracellular brain amyloid-binding proteins remain poorly characterized. Proteomic profiling of rat brain homogenates, performed in this study, resulted in identification of 89 individual intracellular amyloid-binding proteins, and approximately 25% of them were proteins that we had previously identified as specifically binding to isatin, an endogenous neuroprotector molecule. A significant proportion of the amyloid-binding proteins (more than 30%) are differentially expressed or altered/oxidatively modified in AD patients. Incubation of brain homogenates with 70 µM hydrogen peroxide significantly influenced the profile of amyloid-β binding proteins and 0.1 mM isatin decreased the number of identified amyloid-β binding proteins both in control and hydrogen peroxide treated brain homogenates. The effects of hydrogen peroxide and isatin have been confirmed in optical biosensor experiments with purified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, one of the known crucial amyloid-β binding proteins (also identified in this study). Data obtained suggest that isatin protects crucial intracellular protein targets against amyloid binding, and possibly favors intracellular degradation of this protein via preventing formation of amyloid-β oligomers described in the literature for some isatin derivatives.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 16(1):476-495. DOI:10.3390/ijms16010476 · 2.46 Impact Factor