Cooling detection thresholds in the assessment of diabetic sensory polyneuropathy: comparison of CASE IV and Medoc instruments.
ABSTRACT Cooling detection threshold testing may be an important quantitative method for assessing polyneuropathy, in that it has traditionally been viewed as a measure of small-fiber involvement. The present study sought to determine the agreement between two common testing devices and to determine whether these are concordant in their association with predictor variables for diabetic sensory polyneuropathy.
A total of 83 patients with diabetes (10 patients with type 1 diabetes and 73 patients with type 2 diabetes) and a wide spectrum of diabetic sensory polyneuropathy severity underwent concurrent cooling detection threshold testing using the Medoc and CASE IV instruments. Common predictor variables for diabetic sensory polyneuropathy were measured on the same day.
Measurements of cooling detection thresholds by both instruments were highly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.81, P < 0.001) and demonstrated a high degree of agreement by the method of Bland and Altman (95% distribution critical values for the difference in cooling detection thresholds, +7.5 and -5.6 degrees C). Cooling detection thresholds by both instruments were strongly correlated with clinical indicators of large-fiber neuropathy but not with the symptoms of small-fiber neuropathy (pain).
These two instruments available for assessment of cooling detection thresholds are interchangeable for research in diabetic sensory polyneuropathy. However, this modality is equivalent to other modalities of quantitative sensory threshold testing in its association with indicators of large-fiber neuropathy and does not seem to provide an advantage for the prediction of small-fiber involvement.
Article: Frequency-modulated electromagnetic neural stimulation (FREMS) as a treatment for symptomatic diabetic neuropathy: results from a double-blind, randomised, multicentre, long-term, placebo-controlled clinical trial.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of transcutaneous frequency-modulated electromagnetic neural stimulation (frequency rhythmic electrical modulation system, FREMS) as a treatment for symptomatic peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomised, multicentre, parallel-group study of three series, each of ten treatment sessions of FREMS or placebo administered within 3 weeks, 3 months apart, with an overall follow-up of about 51 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of deep peroneal, tibial and sural nerves. Secondary endpoints included the effects of treatment on pain, tactile, thermal and vibration sensations. Patients eligible to participate were aged 18-75 years with diabetes for ≥1 year, HbA(1c) <11.0% (97 mmol/mol), with symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy at the lower extremities (i.e. abnormal amplitude, latency or NCV of either tibial, deep peroneal or sural nerve, but with an evocable potential and measurable NCV of the sural nerve), a Michigan Diabetes Neuropathy Score ≥7 and on a stable dose of medications for diabetic neuropathy in the month prior to enrolment. Data were collected in an outpatient setting. Participants were allocated to the FREMS or placebo arm (1:1 ratio) according to a sequence generated by a computer random number generator, without block or stratification factors. Investigators digitised patients' date of birth and site number into an interactive voice recording system to obtain the assigned treatment. Participants, investigators conducting the trial, or people assessing the outcomes were blinded to group assignment. RESULTS: Patients (n = 110) with symptomatic neuropathy were randomised to FREMS (n = 54) or placebo (n = 56). In the intention-to-treat population (50 FREMS, 51 placebo), changes in NCV of the three examined nerves were not different between FREMS and placebo (deep peroneal [means ± SE]: 0.74 ± 0.71 vs 0.06 ± 1.38 m/s; tibial: 2.08 ± 0.84 vs 0.61 ± 0.43 m/s; and sural: 0.80 ± 1.08 vs -0.91 ± 1.13 m/s; FREMS vs placebo, respectively). FREMS induced a significant reduction in day and night pain as measured by a visual analogue scale immediately after each treatment session, although this beneficial effect was no longer measurable 3 months after treatment. Compared with the placebo group, in the FREMS group the cold sensation threshold was significantly improved, while non-significant differences were observed in the vibration and warm sensation thresholds. No relevant side effects were recorded during the study. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: FREMS proved to be a safe treatment for symptomatic diabetic neuropathy, with immediate, although transient, reduction in pain, and no effect on NCV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01628627 FUNDING: The clinical trial was sponsored by Lorenz Biotech (Medolla, Italy), lately Lorenz Lifetech (Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy).Diabetologia 12/2012; · 6.81 Impact Factor
Article: Identification and prediction of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy using individual and simple combinations of nerve conduction study parameters.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evaluation of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) is hindered by the need for complex nerve conduction study (NCS) protocols and lack of predictive biomarkers. We aimed to determine the performance of single and simple combinations of NCS parameters for identification and future prediction of DSP. 406 participants (61 with type 1 diabetes and 345 with type 2 diabetes) with a broad spectrum of neuropathy, from none to severe, underwent NCS to determine presence or absence of DSP for cross-sectional (concurrent validity) analysis. The 109 participants without baseline DSP were re-evaluated for its future onset (predictive validity). Performance of NCS parameters was compared by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC). At baseline there were 246 (60%) Prevalent Cases. After 3.9 years mean follow-up, 25 (23%) of the 109 Prevalent Controls that were followed became Incident DSP Cases. Threshold values for peroneal conduction velocity and sural amplitude potential best identified Prevalent Cases (AROC 0.90 and 0.83, sensitivity 80 and 83%, specificity 89 and 72%, respectively). Baseline tibial F-wave latency, peroneal conduction velocity and the sum of three lower limb nerve conduction velocities (sural, peroneal, and tibial) best predicted 4-year incidence (AROC 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85; sensitivity 79, 70, and 81%; specificity 63, 74 and 77%, respectively). Individual NCS parameters or their simple combinations are valid measures for identification and future prediction of DSP. Further research into the predictive roles of tibial F-wave latencies, peroneal conduction velocity, and sum of conduction velocities as markers of incipient nerve injury is needed to risk-stratify individuals for clinical and research protocols.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58783. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is classically viewed as an early phenomenon in diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP). We aimed to determine the characteristics of HRV across the spectrum of clinical DSP in type 1 diabetes. Eighty-nine diabetic subjects and 60 healthy volunteers underwent assessment of RR interval variation (RR(var)) during deep breathing and clinical and electrophysiological examination. We examined the distribution of age-standardized RR(var) across the spectrum of clinical DSP, identified variables associated with RR(var) in multivariate regression, and compared RR(var) with validated measures of neuropathy. Age-standardized RR(var) had a significant, step-wise, inverse relationship with ordinal categories of increasing DSP severity (β = -5.4, P < 0.0001) among subjects with diabetes. Case subjects with DSP had substantially lower age-standardized RR(var) compared with diabetic control subjects without DSP (β = -5.2, P < 0.01), although there was substantial overlap of RR(var) between diabetic case subjects and control subjects and the healthy volunteer cohort. In multivariate analysis, advanced age was independently associated with lower RR(var) in both healthy volunteers and diabetic subjects, whereas higher glycated hemoglobin A(1c) and systolic blood pressure were independently associated with lower RR(var) in diabetic subjects. RR(var) had a significant association with validated measures of large and small fiber neuropathy. HRV may be a biomarker for clinical DSP and is associated cross-sectionally with both early and late measures of neuropathy. The low HRV observed in some control subjects without DSP and in most case subjects with severe DSP may signify that HRV has different prognostic implications in these groups, requiring further longitudinal study.Diabetes care 02/2012; 35(4):809-16. · 8.09 Impact Factor