Human monoclonal antibody as prophylaxis for SARS coronavirus infection in ferrets.
ABSTRACT SARS coronavirus continues to cause sporadic cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in China. No active or passive immunoprophylaxis for disease induced by SARS coronavirus is available. We investigated prophylaxis of SARS coronavirus infection with a neutralising human monoclonal antibody in ferrets, which can be readily infected with the virus. Prophylactic administration of the monoclonal antibody at 10 mg/kg reduced replication of SARS coronavirus in the lungs of infected ferrets by 3.3 logs (95% CI 2.6-4.0 logs; p<0.001), completely prevented the development of SARS coronavirus-induced macroscopic lung pathology (p=0.013), and abolished shedding of virus in pharyngeal secretions. The data generated in this animal model show that administration of a human monoclonal antibody might offer a feasible and effective prophylaxis for the control of human SARS coronavirus infection.
Article: Antigenic and immunogenic characterization of recombinant baculovirus-expressed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein: implication for vaccine design.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The spike (S) glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) mediates the receptor interaction and immune recognition and is considered a major target for vaccine design. However, its antigenic and immunogenic properties remain to be elucidated. In this study, we immunized mice with full-length S protein (FL-S) or its extracellular domain (EC-S) expressed by recombinant baculoviruses in insect cells. We found that the immunized mice developed high titers of anti-S antibodies with potent neutralizing activities against SARS pseudoviruses constructed with the S proteins of Tor2, GD03T13, and SZ3, the representative strains of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 human SARS-CoV and palm civet SARS-CoV, respectively. These data suggest that the recombinant baculovirus-expressed S protein vaccines possess excellent immunogenicity, thereby inducing highly potent neutralizing responses against human and animal SARS-CoV variants. The antigenic structure of the S protein was characterized by a panel of 38 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) isolated from the immunized mice. The epitopes of most anti-S MAbs (32 of 38) were localized within the S1 domain, and those of the remaining 6 MAbs were mapped to the S2 domain. Among the anti-S1 MAbs, 17 MAbs targeted the N-terminal region (amino acids [aa] 12 to 327), 9 MAbs recognized the receptor-binding domain (RBD; aa 318 to 510), and 6 MAbs reacted with the C-terminal region of S1 domain that contains the major immunodominant site (aa 528 to 635). Strikingly, all of the RBD-specific MAbs had potent neutralizing activity, 6 of which efficiently blocked the receptor binding, confirming that the RBD contains the main neutralizing epitopes and that blockage of the receptor association is the major mechanism of SARS-CoV neutralization. Five MAbs specific for the S1 N-terminal region exhibited moderate neutralizing activity, but none of the MAbs reacting with the S2 domain and the major immunodominant site in S1 showed neutralizing activity. All of the neutralizing MAbs recognize conformational epitopes. These data provide important information for understanding the antigenicity and immunogenicity of S protein and for designing SARS vaccines. This panel of anti-S MAbs can be used as tools for studying the structure and function of the SARS-CoV S protein.Journal of Virology 07/2006; 80(12):5757-67. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: Production of an anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus human monoclonal antibody Fab fragment by using a combinatorial immunoglobulin gene library derived from patients who recovered from SARS.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A combinatorial human immunoglobulin gene library was constructed from the peripheral lymphocytes of two patients who recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The library was screened for the production of Fab antibody fragments to a recombinant spike protein of SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). One Fab clone, AS3-3, reacted with the spike protein in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The dissociation constant of AS3-3 was 1.98 x 10(-8) M. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that it reacted with SARS-CoV-infected cells. The library seems to be a potent tool for the production of human antibodies to SARS-CoV.Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 06/2006; 13(5):594-7. · 2.55 Impact Factor
Article: Coronavirus pathogenesis and the emerging pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Coronaviruses are a family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-strand RNA viruses classified within the Nidovirales order. This coronavirus family consists of pathogens of many animal species and of humans, including the recently isolated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). This review is divided into two main parts; the first concerns the animal coronaviruses and their pathogenesis, with an emphasis on the functions of individual viral genes, and the second discusses the newly described human emerging pathogen, SARS-CoV. The coronavirus part covers (i) a description of a group of coronaviruses and the diseases they cause, including the prototype coronavirus, murine hepatitis virus, which is one of the recognized animal models for multiple sclerosis, as well as viruses of veterinary importance that infect the pig, chicken, and cat and a summary of the human viruses; (ii) a short summary of the replication cycle of coronaviruses in cell culture; (iii) the development and application of reverse genetics systems; and (iv) the roles of individual coronavirus proteins in replication and pathogenesis. The SARS-CoV part covers the pathogenesis of SARS, the developing animal models for infection, and the progress in vaccine development and antiviral therapies. The data gathered on the animal coronaviruses continue to be helpful in understanding SARS-CoV.Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 01/2006; 69(4):635-64. · 13.02 Impact Factor