Arterial MR imaging phase-contrast flow measurement: improvements with varying velocity sensitivity during cardiac cycle.

MR Center, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby Sygehus, Brendstrupgaardsvej, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.
Radiology (Impact Factor: 6.34). 08/2004; 232(1):289-94. DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2321030783
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To reduce noise in velocity images of magnetic resonance (MR) phase-contrast measurements, the authors implemented and evaluated a pulse sequence that enables automatic optimization of the velocity-encoding parameter V(enc) for individual heart phases in pulsatile flow on the basis of a rapid prescan. This sequence was prospectively evaluated by comparing velocity-to-noise ratios with those from a standard MR flow scan obtained in the carotid artery in eight volunteers. This sequence was shown to improve velocity-to-noise ratios by a factor of 2.0-6.0 in all but the systolic heart phase and was determined to be an effective technique for reducing noise in phase-contrast velocity measurements.

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To measure arterial, venous, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) velocities simultaneously by using Bayesian multipoint velocity-encoded magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to compare interacquisition reproducibility relative to that of standard phase-contrast MR imaging for sequential measurements of arterial, venous, and CSF velocities. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the local ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Simultaneous measurement of blood and CSF flow was performed at the C1-C2 level in 10 healthy subjects (mean age, 24.4 years ± 2.7; five men, five women) by using accelerated Bayesian multipoint velocity-encoded MR imaging. Data were compared with those obtained from two separate conventional phase-contrast MR imaging acquisitions, one optimized for arterial and venous blood flow (velocity encoding range, ±50 cm/sec) and the other optimized for CSF flow (velocity encoding range, ±10 cm/sec), with an imaging time of approximately 2 minutes each. Data acquisition was repeated six times. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and linear regression were used to quantify interacquisition reproducibility. Results There was no significant difference in arterial blood flow measured with Bayesian multipoint velocity-encoded MR imaging and that measured with phase-contrast MR imaging (mean ICC, 0.96 ± 0.03 vs 0.97 ± 0.02, respectively). Likewise, there was no significant difference between CSF flow measured with Bayesian multipoint velocity-encoded MR imaging and that measured with phase-contrast MR imaging (mean ICC, 0.97 ± 0.02 vs 0.96 ± 0.05, respectively). For venous blood flow, the ICC with Bayesian multipoint MR imaging was significantly larger than that with conventional phase-contrast MR imaging (mean, 0.75 ± 0.23 vs 0.65 ± 0.26, respectively; P = .016). Conclusion Bayesian multipoint velocity-encoded MR imaging allows for simultaneous assessment of fast and slow flows in arterial, venous, and CSF lumina in a single acquisition. It eliminates the need for vessel-dependent adjustment of the velocity-encoding range, as required for conventional sequential phase-contrast MR imaging measurements. © RSNA, 2013.
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    ABSTRACT: To validate conventional phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) measurements of steady and pulsatile flows through stenotic phantoms with various degrees of narrowing at Reynolds numbers mimicking flows in the human iliac artery using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) as gold standard. A series of detailed experiments are reported for validation of MR measurements of steady and pulsatile flows with SPIV and CFD on three different stenotic models with 50%, 74%, and 87% area occlusions at three sites: two diameters proximal to the stenosis, at the throat, and two diameters distal to the stenosis. Agreement between conventional spin-warp PC-MRI with Cartesian read-out and SPIV was demonstrated for both steady and pulsatile flows with mean Reynolds numbers of 130, 160, and 190 at the inlet by evaluating the linear regression between the two methods. The analysis revealed a correlation coefficient of > 0.99 and > 0.96 for steady and pulsatile flows, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the most accurate measures of flow by the sequence were at the throat of the stenosis (error < 5% for both steady and pulsatile mean flows). The flow rate error distal to the stenosis was primarily found to be a function of narrowing severity including dependence on proper Venc selection. SPIV and CFD provide excellent approaches to in vitro validation of new or existing PC-MRI flow measurement techniques. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate accuracy and noise properties of a novel time-resolved, three-dimensional, three-directional phase contrast sequence with variable velocity encoding (denoted 4D-vPC) on a 3 Tesla MR system, and to investigate potential benefits and limitations of variable velocity encoding with respect to depicting blood flow patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 4D PC-MRI sequence was modified to allow variable velocity encoding (VENC) over the cardiac cycle in all three velocity directions independently. 4D-PC sequences with constant and variable VENC were compared in a rotating phantom with respect to measured velocities and noise levels. Additionally, comparison of flow patterns in the ascending aorta was performed in six healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Phantom measurements showed a linear relationship between velocity noise and velocity encoding. 4D-vPC MRI presented lower noise levels than 4D-PC both in phantom and in volunteer measurements, in agreement with theory. Volunteer comparisons revealed more consistent and detailed flow patterns in early diastole for the variable VENC sequences. CONCLUSION: Variable velocity encoding offers reduced noise levels compared with sequences with constant velocity encoding by optimizing the velocity-to-noise ratio (VNR) to the hemodynamic properties of the imaged area. Increased VNR ratios could be beneficial for blood flow visualizations of pathology in the cardiac cycle. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 10/2012; · 2.57 Impact Factor