Article

Effects of graded levels of Fusarium-toxin-contaminated wheat in Pekin duck diets on performance, health and metabolism of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (FAL), Braunschweig, Germany.
British Poultry Science (Impact Factor: 1.15). 05/2004; 45(2):264-72. DOI: 10.1080/00071660410001715876
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT 1. Diets with increasing proportions of Fusarium-toxin-contaminated wheat were fed to Pekin ducks for 49 d in order to titrate the lowest effect level. Dietary deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) concentrations were successively increased up to 6 to 7 mg/kg and 0.05 to 0.06 mg/kg, respectively. 2. Feed intake, live weight gain and feed to gain ratio were not influenced by dietary treatment. 3. Gross macroscopic inspection of the upper digestive tract did not reveal any signs of irritation, inflammation or other pathological changes. The weight of the bursa of Fabricius, relative to live weight, decreased in a dose-related fashion. Activities of glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl-transferase in serum were either unaffected or inconsistently affected by dietary treatments. 4. Concentrations of DON and of its de-epoxydised metabolite in plasma and bile were lower than the detection limits of 6 and 16 ng/ml, respectively, of the applied high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. 5. ZON or its metabolites were not detectable in plasma and livers (detection limits of the HPLC method were 1, 0.5 and 5 ng/g for ZON, alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL), respectively). Concentrations of ZON, alpha-ZOL and beta-ZOL in bile increased linearly with dietary ZON concentration. The mean proportions of ZON, alpha-ZOL and beta-ZOL of the sum of all three metabolites were 80, 16 and 4%, respectively. 6. Taken together, it can be concluded that dietary DON and ZON concentrations up to 6 and 0.06 mg/kg, respectively, did not adversely affect performance and health of growing Pekin ducks.

1 Bookmark
 · 
154 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fusarium mycotoxins are structurally diverse chemically distinct groups of fungal metabolites which are prevalent globally. Economically important Fusarium mycotoxins include trichothecenes, zearalenone and fumonisins. Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), and its acetylated forms, are the most commonly encountered trichothecenes in grains used for poultry feeds. Early experiments, conducted for short periods or using single purified compounds, showed that poultry were resistant to DON. More recent experiments, utilising naturally contaminated grains fed to poultry for extended durations, have shown that combinations of Fusarium mycotoxins pose significant risks to poultry performance and health. Turkeys appear to be more sensitive to Fusarium mycotoxicoses than chickens, while ducks have proven to be the most resistant poultry species. This review discusses various aspects of mycotoxicoses in poultry fed diets containing grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins.
    World's Poultry Science Journal 02/2010; 66(01):65 - 86. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the transfer of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its de-epoxy metabolite (de-epoxy-DON) in the plasma of chicken, mashed oats naturally contaminated with 9.5 mg DON/kg were fed to four broilers (35 days age) at a dose of 20 g/bird. Blood samples were then collected from two birds at 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h post-feeding, while from the other two birds at 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h post-feeding. Analysis of DON and de-epoxy-DON was carried out by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after clean-up with immunoaffinity columns. At 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h post-feeding, the average values of plasma DON were 0.35 ng/ml, 0.20 ng/ml, and 0.15 ng/ml, respectively. The corresponding average values of de-epoxy-DON at these time points were 0.70 ng/ml, 0.80 ng/ml, and 0.25 ng/ml, respectively. The sum of DON and de-epoxy-DON appearing in the plasma at 1 h post-feeding in these birds was estimated to be 0.044% of the total DON fed. At 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h post-feeding, the average values of plasma DON were 0.85 ng/ml, 0.45 ng/ml, and 0.30 ng/ml. De-epoxy-DON could not be detected in the birds sampled at 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h post-feeding. The total amount of DON appearing in the plasma at 2 h post-feeding in these birds was estimated to be 0.036% of the DON fed. These data show that the absorption rate of DON is very low in broilers and that there is also a rapid transformation, and clearance from plasma. Furthermore, there appeared to be individual variability in the capacity of birds to de-epoxidise DON.
    Mycotoxin Research 11/2010; 26(4):217-20.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The knowledge of factors influencing the kinetics, metabolism and bioavailability of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a basic prerequisite for evaluation of the transfer (carry over) of the toxin and its metabolites into edible tissues, and for a physiological specimen-based diagnosis of intoxication. These aspects are addressed in the present review, and potentials and pitfalls of the suitability of analysis of physiological samples for evaluation of the DON exposure as a veterinary tool are discussed. For example, the farm animal species was shown to be a determining factor influencing the metabolic profile and the bioavailability of DON. Although linear relationships were derived between DON exposure of ad libitum and restrictively fed animals and DON or de-epoxy-DON concentration in the blood of pigs, dairy cows and sheep, it has to be considered that individual values might markedly deviate from these relationships, which makes interpretation of measured concentrations of DON and its metabolites difficult. The situation is further complicated by the lack of established relationships between DON residues in physiological matrices and the adverse effects of DON on the health and performance of farm animals.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor