Effects of graded levels of Fusarium-toxin-contaminated wheat in Pekin duck diets on performance, health and metabolism of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.
ABSTRACT 1. Diets with increasing proportions of Fusarium-toxin-contaminated wheat were fed to Pekin ducks for 49 d in order to titrate the lowest effect level. Dietary deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) concentrations were successively increased up to 6 to 7 mg/kg and 0.05 to 0.06 mg/kg, respectively. 2. Feed intake, live weight gain and feed to gain ratio were not influenced by dietary treatment. 3. Gross macroscopic inspection of the upper digestive tract did not reveal any signs of irritation, inflammation or other pathological changes. The weight of the bursa of Fabricius, relative to live weight, decreased in a dose-related fashion. Activities of glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl-transferase in serum were either unaffected or inconsistently affected by dietary treatments. 4. Concentrations of DON and of its de-epoxydised metabolite in plasma and bile were lower than the detection limits of 6 and 16 ng/ml, respectively, of the applied high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. 5. ZON or its metabolites were not detectable in plasma and livers (detection limits of the HPLC method were 1, 0.5 and 5 ng/g for ZON, alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL), respectively). Concentrations of ZON, alpha-ZOL and beta-ZOL in bile increased linearly with dietary ZON concentration. The mean proportions of ZON, alpha-ZOL and beta-ZOL of the sum of all three metabolites were 80, 16 and 4%, respectively. 6. Taken together, it can be concluded that dietary DON and ZON concentrations up to 6 and 0.06 mg/kg, respectively, did not adversely affect performance and health of growing Pekin ducks.
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ABSTRACT: Captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed wheat containing 5.8 ppm deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) from an outbreak of Fusarium graminearium head-blight that occurred on grain crops in Manitoba, Canada, during 1993. There was no evidence of taste aversion to this grain during a 10-day palatability trial. No significant differences were detected in serum protein, calcium, glucose, creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase or uric acid levels, blood packed cell volume, or body or organ weight, between ducks fed contaminated wheat and those fed uncontaminated wheat during a 14-day feeding trial. No gross or microscopic lesions were detected in birds fed contaminated wheat for 14 days. Based on these results, ducks will consume grain containing moderate levels of DON and short-term exposure to this grain will not result in obvious adverse effects.Journal of wildlife diseases 02/1996; 32(1):17-22. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON or 3, 7, 15-trihydroxy-12, 13-epoxy-trichothec-9-en-8-one) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum that can contaminate grain. Domestic fowl are particularly tolerant to DON ingestion. Prelusky et al. orally administered Â¹â´C-DON to chickens and observed high radioactivity in the liver and bile with over 90% of the original label accruing in the excreta before 48 h. DON cannot be detected in portal blood concurrent to its disappearance from the gastrointestinal tract. Presumably, DON was structurally modified upon absorption then hepatically retrieved and excreted in bile. In the present experimentation, Â³H-DON was intubated into colostomized and intact hens. The objective was to measure the progressive changes in distribution of radioactivity along the gastrointestinal tract, among body tissues and between urine and feces.Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 07/1989; 42(6):919-25. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 16-wk experiment with laying hens was carried out to examine the effects of feeding of mycotoxin-contaminated maize (CM) on performance, nutrient digestibility, weight of organs, serum chemical parameters, and antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in serum. Also tested were fimbrien antigen K88 in egg yolk and zearalenone (ZON) residues in eggs and tissues. The Fusarium-toxin-contaminated maize contained 17,630 microg deoxynivalenol and 1,580 microg ZON/kg. Moreover, Mycofix Plus (MP), a so-called detoxifying agent, was added to both the uncontaminated control (UCM) and to the CM diet (70% dietary maize inclusion). Each of the four resulting diets (UCM, UCM-MP, CM, CM-MP) was tested on 25 laying hybrids (Lohmann Brown). Feeding of the CM diets significantly depressed feed intake compared to the control groups by approximately 5%. This was mainly due to the effects observed at the beginning of the experiment. Daily egg mass production/hen was 56.6, 58.4, 53.9, and 55.2 g in groups UCM, UCM-MP, CM and CM-MP, respectively. Nutrient digestibility and metabolizability of gross energy were slightly depressed by feeding the CM diets and improved by MP addition. Feeding of the CM diets resulted in a significant decrease in serum titers to NDV and to an increase in yolk titers to antigen K88. No residues of ZON or of its metabolites were found in yolk, albumen, abdominal fat, breast meat, follicles greater than 1 cm in diameter, ovaries including follicles smaller than 1 cm in diameter, magnum, and serum. ZON and alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) were detected in livers of hens fed the CM diets at mean concentrations of 2.1 and 3.7 microg/kg, respectively. It was concluded that feeding maize which was highly contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins adversely influenced performance of hens and modulated immune response. At the given level of zearalenone and at the indicated detection limits, no residues of ZON and its metabolites were found in eggs. The effects of the tested detoxifying agent were quite mycotoxin-independent.Poultry Science 12/2002; 81(11):1671-80. · 1.52 Impact Factor