1. Diets with increasing proportions of Fusarium-toxin-contaminated wheat were fed to Pekin ducks for 49 d in order to titrate the lowest effect level. Dietary deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) concentrations were successively increased up to 6 to 7 mg/kg and 0.05 to 0.06 mg/kg, respectively. 2. Feed intake, live weight gain and feed to gain ratio were not influenced by dietary treatment. 3. Gross macroscopic inspection of the upper digestive tract did not reveal any signs of irritation, inflammation or other pathological changes. The weight of the bursa of Fabricius, relative to live weight, decreased in a dose-related fashion. Activities of glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl-transferase in serum were either unaffected or inconsistently affected by dietary treatments. 4. Concentrations of DON and of its de-epoxydised metabolite in plasma and bile were lower than the detection limits of 6 and 16 ng/ml, respectively, of the applied high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. 5. ZON or its metabolites were not detectable in plasma and livers (detection limits of the HPLC method were 1, 0.5 and 5 ng/g for ZON, alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL), respectively). Concentrations of ZON, alpha-ZOL and beta-ZOL in bile increased linearly with dietary ZON concentration. The mean proportions of ZON, alpha-ZOL and beta-ZOL of the sum of all three metabolites were 80, 16 and 4%, respectively. 6. Taken together, it can be concluded that dietary DON and ZON concentrations up to 6 and 0.06 mg/kg, respectively, did not adversely affect performance and health of growing Pekin ducks.
"For example, it was shown that feeding of Peking ducks with an increasing proportion of DON contaminated wheat (6–7 mg DON/kg and 0.05–0.06 mg ZON/kg) led to a relative decrease of the mass of the bursa of Fabricius , which may reduce the production of antibodies. Moreover, in ducks, higher heart, liver and pancreas weight were reported after feeding of DON , and in broilers gizzard, heart and bursa of Fabricius were having a higher weight [49,35]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common Fusarium toxin in poultry feed. Chickens are more resistant to the adverse impacts of deoxynivalenol (DON) compared to other species. In general, the acute form of DON mycotoxicosis rarely occurs in poultry flocks under normal conditions. However, if diets contain low levels of DON (less than 5 mg DON/kg diet), lower productivity, impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infectious diseases can occur. The molecular mechanism of action of DON has not been completely understood. A significant influence of DON in chickens is the impairment of immunological functions. It was known that low doses of DON elevated the serum IgA levels and affected both cell-mediated and humoral immunity in animals. DON is shown to suppress the antibody response to infectious bronchitis vaccine (IBV) and to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in broilers (10 mg DON/kg feed) and laying hens (3.5 to 14 mg of DON/kg feed), respectively. Moreover, DON (10 mg DON/kg feed) decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the plasma of broilers. DON can severely affect the immune system and, due to its negative impact on performance and productivity, can eventually result in high economic losses to poultry producers. The present review highlights the impacts of DON intoxication on cell mediated immunity, humoral immunity, gut immunity, immune organs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in chickens.
"Relative weight of bursa was decreased in a dose dependent manner when Pekin ducks were fed increasing proportions of contaminated wheat (6-7 mg DON/kg and 0.05-0.06 mg ZEA/kg) for 49 days (Danicke et al., 2004). Reduction in lymphoid organ weights (bursa of Fabricius) may correlate with reduced antibody production. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycotoxins of economic importance in poultry production are mainly produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium fungi. The important mycotoxins in poultry production are aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone and fumonisins. Mycotoxins exert their immunotoxic effects through various mechanisms which are manifested as reduced response of the immune system. Mycotoxin-induced immunosuppression in poultry may be manifested as decreased antibody production to antigens (e.g. sheep red blood cells) and impaired delayed hypersensitivity response (e.g. dinitrochlorobenzene), reduction in systemic bacterial clearance (e.g. Salmonella, Brucella, Listeria and Escherichia), lymphocyte proliferation (response to mitogens), macrophage phagocytotic ability, and alterations in CD4+/CD8+ ratio, immune organ weights (spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius), and histological changes (lymphocyte depletion, degeneration and necrosis). Mycotoxins, especially fumonisin B(1) have been shown to down regulate proinflammatory cytokine levels including those of interferon (IFN)-gamma, IFN-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, and IL-2 in broiler chickens. Fusarium mycotoxins exert part of their toxic effects by altering cytokine production in poultry. Mycotoxins adversely affect intestinal barrier functions by reducing the intestinal epithelial integrity and removing tight junction proteins. Apoptosis, increased colonisation of pathogenic microorganisms, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, inhibition of protein synthesis and lipid peroxidation are characteristic of the toxic effects of mycotoxins on intestinal epithelium. These directly or indirectly affect host immune responses. Such immunotoxic effects of mycotoxins render poultry susceptible to many infectious diseases. The avian immune system is sensitive to most mycotoxins. Both cell-mediated and humoral immunity may be adversely affected after feeding mycotoxins to poultry. The avian immune system may be more sensitive to naturally contaminated feedstuffs because of the presence of multiple mycotoxins and the complex interactions between them which can cause severe adverse effects. Adverse effects of mycotoxins on the immune system reduce production and performance resulting in economic losses to poultry industries. Caution must be exercised while feeding grains contaminated with mycotoxins.
World Mycotoxin Journal 05/2008; 1(2):105-121. DOI:10.3920/WMJ2008.1015 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The experiments were aimed at evaluating whether the activity of the glucose transporter in the pig's jejunum is affected by deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated feed. This is based on the ability of DON to inhibit the protein synthesis on cellular level which might also involve the synthesis of the intestinal glucose transporter.Two groups of six castrated male pigs were restrictively fed a control or a DON contaminated diet (=5.7 mg/kg). Immediately after slaughtering the pigs, the mid-jejunum was quickly dissected, washed, frozen and stored at -80°C until preparations. Brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared by Mg(2+)-EGTA-precipitation and differential centrifugation. The activity of the glucose transporter was examined by measuring the uptake of [(3)H]-glucose into the BBMV. The glucose uptake was quantified by using the rapid filtration technique.The glucose uptake into BBMV followed Michaelis-Menten-kinetic. Comparison of the kinetic parameters Vmax (transport capacity) and Km (transport affinity) of the two treatment-groups showed no significant differences between feeding a DON-contaminated or control diet. It was concluded that dietary DON exposure (=5.7 mg/kg) for five weeks had no obvious influence on the intestinal glucose transporter and its activity in pigs.
Mycotoxin Research 12/2005; 21(4):251-7. DOI:10.1007/BF02957587
Naiara Ferraz Moreira, Rosely Sichieri, Michael Eduardo Reichenheim, Alessandra Silva Dias de Oliveira, Gloria Valeria da Veiga
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