Pilot study of celecoxib and infusional 5-fluorouracil as second-line treatment for advanced pancreatic carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is up-regulated frequently and may constitute a promising therapeutic target in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
Patients with advanced PDAC who had progressive disease after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were eligible for this pilot study. Treatment was comprised of oral celecoxib (400 mg twice daily) and protracted intravenous (i.v.) infusion 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (200 mg/m(2) per day), both given continuously for a maximum of 9 treatment months, in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients were examined weekly for toxicity and were restaged every 6-8 weeks for tumor assessment.
Seventeen patients entered the study. Asymptomatic transaminase elevation was the most common toxicity and reached NCI-CTC (version 3.0) Grade 3-4 in 4 of 133 treatment weeks. No other hematologic or nonhematologic toxicity > Grade 2 was observed. Four patients discontinued celecoxib due to upper gastrointestinal tract toxicity. Two confirmed partial responses (durations of 23 weeks and 68 weeks, respectively) and 2 patients with stable disease (durations of 10 weeks and 13 weeks, respectively) were observed for an overall response rate of 12% (95% confidence interval, 0-27%) in the intent-to-treat population. A significant decrease (> or = 50%) in serum CA 19.9 levels was observed in 3 of 9 evaluable patients. The median time to disease progression was 8 weeks, and the median overall survival was 15 weeks.
The combination of oral celecoxib and 5-FU by protracted i.v. infusion was found to be feasible and well tolerated, and was capable of inducing durable objective responses, even in patients with far advanced, gemcitabine-resistant/refractory PDAC. Further exploration of COX-2 inhibitor/fluropyrimidine combinations is warranted.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3-5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer.Frontiers in oncology. 01/2012; 2:6.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease, including at least three major forms: hereditary, sporadic and colitis-associated CRC. A large body of evidence indicates that genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, chronic inflammation, diet and lifestyle are the risk factors for CRC. As elevated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression was found in most CRC tissue and is associated with worse survival among CRC patients, investigators have sought to evaluate the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective COX-2 inhibitors (COXIBs) on CRC. The epidemiological studies, clinical trials and animal experiments indicate that NSAIDs are among the most promising chemopreventive agents for this disease. NSAIDs exert their anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects primarily by reducing prostaglandin production by inhibition of COX-2 activity. In this review, we highlight breakthroughs in our understanding of the roles of COX-2 in CRC and inflammatory bowel disease. These recent data provide a rationale for re-evaluating COX-2 as both the prognostic and the predictive marker in a wide variety of malignancies and for renewing the interest in evaluating relative benefits and risk of COXIBs in appropriately selected patients for cancer prevention and treatment.Oncogene 11/2009; 29(6):781-8. · 6.37 Impact Factor
Article: A Cancer and Leukemia Group B phase II study of sunitinib malate in patients with previously treated metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (CALGB 80603).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) conducted a phase II study evaluating sunitinib in patients with progressive metastatic pancreas adenocarcinoma following prior gemcitabine-based therapy (trial CALGB 80603; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00397787). The primary endpoint was to determine the disease control rate (DCR) as measured by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (complete response, partial response [PR], and stable disease) at 6 weeks. Patients aged ≥18 years with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score of 0-2 and with progressive pancreas adenocarcinoma following treatment with gemcitabine were eligible. Sunitinib was dosed at 50 mg orally days 1-28, every 42 days (1 cycle). The statistical plan called for a three-stage design. A DCR ≥15% was considered worthy of further study. In total, 77 patients were enrolled. Forty-two (54.6%) enrollees were male. The median age was 65 years. The ECOG performance status score distribution was: 0, 39%; 1, 50%; 2, 11%. The DCR was 21.6%; one patient (1.4%) had a PR and 15 patients (20.3%) had stable disease as their best response. The progression-free survival time was 1.31 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-1.38 months) and overall survival time was 3.68 months (95% CI, 3.06-4.24 months). The study met its primary endpoint; however sunitinib had minimal activity and moderate toxicity in a population of gemcitabine-refractory pancreas adenocarcinoma patients. For future studies, limiting enrollment to patients with an ECOG performance status score of 0-1 is recommended.The Oncologist 01/2010; 15(12):1310-9. · 3.91 Impact Factor