Elephant trunk procedure: newer indications and uses.
ABSTRACT The elephant trunk procedure is used for extensive aortic aneurysms. We evaluated its safety, newer indications, and influence of second-stage completion on survival.
Records were reviewed for 94 consecutive patients (age 67 +/- 11 years, 47% men) who underwent the procedure between November 1990 and February 2003. The trunk was implanted as an extension of the ascending aorta and arch graft in 83 of 94 (88.3%) patients, distal arch graft in 8 of 94 (8.5%) patients, and in 3 distal to the left subclavian artery (3 of 94 patients [3.2%]). Aortic dissection was present in 37 (39.4%) patients and Marfan syndrome was present in 7 (7.4%). Twenty-three were reoperations (24.5%). In 9 patients, the trunk procedure was adjunctive in preparation for the second operation. In 15 patients, the anastomosis was completed between the left subclavian and common carotid arteries. Coronary artery bypass was performed in 36 (38.4%) and aortic valve operation in 55 (58.5%; 20 root sparing repairs, 16 composite grafts and 19 replacements) patients.
There were two early 30-day in-hospital deaths (2.1%) and 5 permanent strokes (5.3%). Eleven died before the second-stage procedure. Forty-seven (57%) underwent second-stage procedures; 40 by thoracotomy and 7 by stent graft insertion, including 2 thoracoabdominal aneurysm repairs with visceral bypasses before stent grafting with 4 early deaths (8.5%). Five-year survival was 34% without a second-stage procedure versus 75% 3-year survival with it.
With a current total of 142 elephant trunk procedures, we found it is safe and should be used more with initial cardiac surgery before descending or thoracoabdominal aorta repair.
- The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 02/1983; 31(1):37-40. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Open surgery using the endovascular stent-graft is a novel technique that lessens the invasiveness of surgery for the aortic arch. However, the outcome of this procedure remains uncertain. Between November 1996 and July 2000, a total of 19 patients underwent open surgery using an endovascular stent-graft for thoracic aortic aneurysms. There were 15 men (78.9%) and 4 women (21.1%). Patient age ranged from 29 to 82 years (mean 69.3 years, median 74 years). Atherosclerotic thoracic aortic aneurysms were present in 17 patients (89.4%) and aortic dissection in 2 patients (10.5%). Two patients (10.5%) died in the hospital and 4 patients (21.1%) presented with paraplegia postoperatively. Among the 4 patients with postoperative paraplegia, 1 case was complicated with intraoperative aortic dissection. The other 3 patients with paraplegia had spinal cord ischemic time of more than 60 minutes and intraoperative body weight gain of more than 4 kg. Of these 3 patients, hemodynamic instability after cardiopulmonary bypass was observed in 1 patient and cholesterin embolus in the anterior spinal artery was found at autopsy in another. On univariate analysis, age greater than 75 years was the only risk factor associated with paraplegia (p < 0.05). Autopsy findings for the 2 patients showed that the Adamkiewicz arteries were not blocked by the stent-graft in either patient. Intraoperative aortic dissection, embolization of the intercostal arteries, long ischemic time of the spinal cord, and excessive weight gain during operation may have been associated with the high incidence of paraplegia after open surgery using the endovascular stent-graft.The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 08/2002; 74(1):83-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A 68-year-old woman with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aortic valvular insufficiency, and diffuse thoracic aortic aneurysm underwent aortic valve replacement and separate Dacron graft replacement of the ascending aortic and arch aneurysms using the elephant trunk technique. She was discharged on the tenth postoperative day. Five months later, she underwent endovascular stent-graft repair of the descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. She recovered uneventfully, and was discharged on the third postoperative day. Follow-up computed tomography at 6 months demonstrated exclusion of all flow into the descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. The elephant trunk technique followed by endovascular stent-grafting of the descending thoracic component is a potential therapeutic option in selected high-risk patients with diffuse aortic aneurysmal disease.The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 11/1995; · 3.45 Impact Factor