The aim was to examine trends in the proportion of smoking in diabetes patients, and to study associations between smoking, glycaemic control, and microalbuminuria.
Smoking habits were reported to the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR), with data from hospitals and primary health care. Patient characteristics included were age, gender, type of treatment, diabetes duration, HbA1c, BMI, blood pressure, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs, and microalbuminuria.
The proportion of smokers in type 1 diabetes was 12-15% during 1996-2001, it was high in females<30 years (12-16%), and was higher in the age group 30-59 years (13-17%) than in older (6-9%) patients. The corresponding proportion of smoking in type 2 diabetes was 10-12%, higher in those less than 60 years of age (17-22%) than in older (7-9%) patients. Smoking type 1 and type 2 patients in 2001 had higher mean HbA1c but lower mean BMI values than non-smokers. Smokers also had higher frequencies of microalbuminuria, in both type 1 (18 vs 14%) and type 2 (20% vs 13%) diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses disclosed that smoking was independently associated with elevated HbA1c levels (p<0.001) and microalbuminuria (p<0.001), but negatively with BMI (p<0.001), in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Smoking in patients with diabetes was widespread, especially in young female type 1, and in middle-aged type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients, and should be the target for smoking cessation campaigns. Smoking was associated with both poor glycaemic control and microalbuminuria, independently of other study characteristics.
"In addition, multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong correlation between smoking and elevated HbA1c values. Similar results have been published by Nilsson et al.  who reported that smoking was associated with poor glycemic control independently of confounding factors like BMI, age, diabetes duration, and so on. According to Nilsson et al. this association may be (1) a direct result of tobacco consumption, which increases insulin resistance and promotes the insulin resistance syndrome, or (2) a consequence of an adverse, smoking-related lifestyle, which is associated with a reduced compliance regarding anti-diabetic treatment. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
A comprehensive knowledge about the mutual influence between diabetes and periodontitis is decisive for the successful treatment of both diseases. The present investigation aimed at assessing the diabetic and periodontal conditions and, in particular, the degree of knowledge about the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis.
During a diabetes information program, 111 nondiabetics (ND), 101 type 1 diabetics (T1D), and 236 type 2 diabetics (T2D) were subject to a medical and dental examination and completed a self-administered questionnaire. Medical examination included measurements of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose (BG), and body mass index (BMI). Full-mouth examination consisted of the assessment of the decayed, missing, filled teeth index (DMFT) and the periodontal screening index (PSI). Chi-square test, ANOVA, t test of independent samples, univariate and multivariate logistic regression models with variable selection strategies were used for statistical analyses. Due to the exploratory character of the investigation a value of P ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically substantial.
T2D had a significantly higher PSI when compared to T1D and ND (t test: P <0.001; P = 0.005). Approximately 90% of T2D suffered from periodontitis. In addition, diabetics with periodontitis showed a significantly higher BMI when compared to diabetics without periodontitis (multivariate logistic regression: P = 0.002). Almost 60% of all investigated subjects were not informed about the mutual influence between diabetes and periodontitis. T2D had almost as little information about the increased risk for periodontitis as ND.
The data of the present investigation suggest that there is a strong association between type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis. The lack of awareness of the mutual influence between diabetes and periodontitis, especially in T2D, demonstrates that this topic is still neglected in dental and diabetic treatment.
"In a population-based prospective study, cigarette smoking was positively associated in a dose dependent manner with elevated HbA1c after adjustment for possible confounding by dietary variables . This finding was also reported in patients with diabetes in Sweden; smoking type 1 and type 2 patients had a higher mean HbA1c but a lower mean body mass index than non-smokers . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor in many diseases, including various kinds of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Many studies have also reported the unfavorable effects of smoking for diabetes mellitus. Smoking increases the risk of developing diabetes, and aggravates the micro- and macro-vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Smoking is associated with insulin resistance, inflammation and dyslipidemia, but the exact mechanisms through which smoking influences diabetes mellitus are not clear. However, smoking cessation is one of the important targets for diabetes control and the prevention diabetic complications.
"Probably, a higher proportion of females compared to males develop DN from T1DM because of a lack of awareness and a systematic delay in the diagnosis of complications. In Japan, a small percentage of female individuals exhibit smoking habits
; hence, this situation is less alarming for female patients compared to male patients. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are very few clinical reports that have compared the association between cigarette smoking and microangiopathy in Asian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between urinary protein concentrations and smoking and gender-based risk factors among patients with T1DM.
A cross-sectional study of 259 patients with T1DM (men/women = 90/169; mean age, 50.7 years) who visited our hospital for more than 1 year between October 2010 and April 2011 was conducted. Participants completed a questionnaire about their smoking habits. Patient characteristics included gender, age, body mass index, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, lipid parameters, and microangiopathy. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) was categorized as normoalbuminuria (NA), microalbuminuria (MA), or overt albuminuria (OA) on the basis of the following urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) levels: NA, ACR levels less than 30 mg/g creatinine (Cr); MA, ACR levels between 30 and 299 mg/g Cr; and OA, ACR levels over 300 mg/g Cr.
The percentages of current nonsmokers and current smokers with T1DM were 73.0% (n = 189) and 27.0% (n = 70), respectively. In addition, the percentage of males was higher than that of females (52.2% versus 13.6%) in the current smoking population. The percentage of DN was 61.8% (n = 160) in patients with NA, 21.6% (n = 56) in patients with MA, and 16.6% (n = 43) in patients with OA. The percentage of males among OA patients was also higher than that of females (24.4% versus 12.4%). However, current smoking status was associated with OA in females with T1DM only [unadjusted odds ratio (OR), 4.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45-11.73, P < 0.01; multivariate-adjusted OR, 5.41; 95% CI, 1.69-17.30, P < 0.01].
Based on our results in this cross-sectional study of Asian patients with T1DM, smoking might be a risk factor for OA among female patients. Further research is needed of these gender-specific results.
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