Carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater: comparative histologic/immunohistochemical classification and follow-up.
ABSTRACT A broad histomorphologic spectrum of ampullary carcinomas of Vater make a reproducible histologic classification difficult. Using cytokeratin immunohistochemistry, we present a new classification of ampullary carcinomas and analyze their clinical significance. Fifty-five invasive carcinomas of Vater's ampulla were histologically classified into pancreaticobiliary, intestinal, and other types. Serial sections of all carcinoma specimens were additionally stained with antibodies to cytokeratins (CK7, CK20), apomucins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC), CEA, CA19-9, Ki67, and p53. Follow-up of patients from 4 months to 22 years after surgery (mean interval, 51.6 months) was evaluated. Most carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater were of immunohistochemically pancreaticobiliary type (iPT, CK7+, CK20-; 54.5%) or intestinal type (immunohistochemically intestinal type [iIT], CK7-, CK20+; 23.6%). Some carcinomas of immunohistochemically "other" type (iOT both CK7+ and CK20+ or CK7- and CK20-; 21.8%) had precursor lesions of iIT or iPT. Carcinomas positive for MUC2 or CEA were associated with iIT (MUC2, P < 0.001; CEA, P = 0.003), whereas MUC5AC-positive carcinomas were related to iPT (P = 0.005). Our classification based on cytokeratin-immunohistochemistry correlated well with the histologic classification according to published criteria (kappa-coefficient = 0.398; P < 0.001). Furthermore, histologically unusual types could be histogenetically related to pancreaticobiliary duct mucosa or intestinal mucosa. Therefore, all 4 signet-ring cell carcinomas were iIT carcinomas. Thus, cytokeratin immunohistochemistry allows a reproducible, histogenetically based categorization of ampullary carcinomas. However, neither histopathologic nor immunohistochemical subgroups significantly correlated with clinical outcome in our German collective. The overall survival was significantly shorter in males (P = 0.032) and patients with positive nodal stage (N1 < N0; P = 0.0025).
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ABSTRACT: Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC) of the ampulla of Vater is extremely rare and the histogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, to investigate the immunohistochemical phenotypes, discuss the histological origin and evaluate the correlation between the immunohistochemical phenotypes and survival of ampullary SRC patients, a retrospective review was conducted. This included all ampullary carcinoma patients treated at The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, and was performed over a five-year period between 2008 and 2012. Eight resected ampullary SRC specimens were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically, using cytokeratin (CK) and mucin (MUC) immunohistochemical phenotypes. Of all 162 patients with ampullary lesions, eight cases (4.9%) of ampullary SRC were identified. Immunohistochemical analyses of the eight cases revealed the positive expression of CK7 in five, CK19 in seven, CK20 in one, MUC1 in five, MUC2 in three, caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 in one, MUC5AC in seven and MUC6 in four of the eight cases, while loss of E-cadherin and β-catenin was observed in four of the eight cases. According to immunohistochemical classification, ampullary SRC can be classified into four subtypes: Intestinal (I), pancreatobiliary (PB), gastric and mixed types (composed of I mucosa lining and PB epithelium). Patients with the I-type ampullary SRC demonstrated a more favorable prognosis than that of patients with the PB-type ampullary SRC. Additionally, patients with ampullary SRC of I or PB type with gastric differentiation may have a worse prognosis than others. The coexpression of the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex may also indicate poor prognosis in PB-type ampullary SRC. In conclusion, the clinical five-year follow-up of the patients with pure SRC was more positive than that of those with I-, PB-, gastric- or mixed-type ampullary SRC. The coexpression of the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex may present a poor prognosis in the PB type of ampullary SRC.Oncology letters 10/2014; 8(4):1687-1692. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.2344 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The need for adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of ampullary cancer (PapCa) remains undefined. Recent data suggest that a different epithelial origin of PapCa might be associated with different tumor biology. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical value of morphologic and immunohistochemic subclassification of PapCa into intestinal-type (IT) and pancreaticobiliary-type (PT) to predict chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS). Via a prospective database, 112 PapCa were identified, of which 95 could be included in the present study. Those were compared with 206 matching patients with periampullary pancreatic cancer (ie, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, PDAC). IT and PT PapCa were classified morphologically, and tissue microarray was prepared with immunohistochemistry for CK7, CK20, MUC2, CDX2, ß-Catenin, and Villin. Multivariate survival analysis was performed. OS of PT patients was less compared with IT patients (25 vs 98 months; P < .001), whereas it was comparable with patients with PDAC (25 vs 14 months; P = .123). PT patients receiving adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy featured improved OS (32 vs 13 months; P = .013), whereas gemcitabine tended to be associated with decreased OS in IT patients (35 vs 112 months; P = .193). Besides histopathologic classification, expression of CK7 and MUC2 were important prognostic variables. PT patients with CK7-positivity or MUC2-negativity were segregated into an even poorer prognostic group. PapCa is not a separate tumor entity. We demonstrate important differences between IT-PapCa and PT-PapCa not only in long-term survival but also in response to adjuvant gemcitabine. Tumor biology and clinical course of PT tumors resemble those of PDAC. PT tumors should therefore be treated like PDAC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Surgery 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2015.02.001 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been confirmed in randomized controlled trials. For nonpancreatic periampullary cancers (NPPC) originating from the distal bile duct, duodenum, ampulla, or papilla of Vater, the role of adjuvant therapy remains largely unclear. This review describes methods for distinguishing PDAC from NPPC by means of readily available and recently developed molecular diagnostic methods. The difficulties of reliably determining the exact origin of these cancers pathologically also is discussed. The review also considers the possibility of unintentional inclusion of NPPC in the most important adjuvant trials on PDAC and the subsequent implications for interpretation of the results. The authors conclude that correct determination of the origin of periampullary cancers is essential for clinical management and should therefore be systematically incorporated into clinical practice and future studies.Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2014; DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-4267-4 · 3.94 Impact Factor