Role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy.
ABSTRACT Diabetic vascular complication is a leading cause of acquired blindness, end-stage renal failure, a variety of neuropathies and accelerated atherosclerosis, which could account for disabilities and high mortality rates in patients with diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia is essentially involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications via various metabolic derangements. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, especially focusing on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) system. Several types of AGE inhibitors and their therapeutic implications in diseases, including diabetic microangiopathy, will be discussed in the next review article.
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ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important role in the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and accelerate atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. Autophagy, a life-sustaining process, is stimulated in atherosclerotic plaques by oxidized lipids, inflammation and metabolic stress conditions. In our studies, we utilized MTT assays to show that autophagy is involved in AGE-induced proliferation of VSMCs. Furthermore, treatment with AGEs (100 µg/ml) could induce autophagy in a time- and dose-dependent manner in rat aortic VSMCs. These results were further substantiated by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence imaging. Treatment with AGEs activated ERK, JNK and p38/MAPK, but inhibited Akt. Pretreatment with an ERK inhibitor and an Akt activator inhibited AGE-induced autophagy, demonstrating that AGEs induce autophagy in VSMCs through the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. In addition, RNA interference of RAGE decreased autophagy, indicating that RAGE is pivotal in the process of AGE-induced autophagy. Therefore, AGE-induced autophagy contributes to the process of AGE-induced proliferation of VSMCs, which is related to atherosclerosis in diabetes.International Journal of Molecular Medicine 04/2012; 29(4):613-8. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glucose reacts with proteins non-enzymatically under physiological conditions. Such glycation is exacerbated in diabetic patients with high level of blood sugar, and induces various complications. Human albumin serum (HSA) is the most abundant protein in plasma and is glycated by glucose. The glycation sites on HSA remain controversial among different studies. Here, we report two protein crystal structures of HSA in complex with either glucose or fructose. These crystal structures reveal that the presence of linear forms of sugar for both monosaccharides. The linear form of glucose forms a covalent bond to Lys195 of HSA, but not the case for fructose. Based on these structures, we propose a mechanism for glucose ring opening involving both residues Lys195 and Lys199. These results provide mechanistic insights to understand the glucose ring opening reaction and the glycation of proteins by monosaccharides.Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic cardiomyopathy has been shown to promote hypertrophy, leading to heart failure. Recent studies have reported a correlation between diabetic cardiomyopathy and oxidative stress, suggesting that the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In a clinical setting, AGEs have been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship between AGEs and cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. This study sought to identify the role of AGEs in cardiac hypertrophy by treating H9c2 cells with glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (200 μg/ml) or H(2)O(2) (50 μM) for 96 h. Our results demonstrate that AGEs significantly increased protein levels and cell size. These effects were effectively blocked with PD98059 (10 μM; MEK/ERK inhibitor) pretreatment, suggesting that AGEs caused cell hypertrophy via the MEK/ERK pathway. We then treated cells with AGEs and H(2)O(2) for 0-120 min and employed the Odyssey infrared imaging system to detect MEK/ERK phosphorylation. Our results show that AGEs up-regulated MEK/ERK phosphorylation. However, this effect was blocked by NAC (5 mM; ROS inhibitor), indicating that AGEs regulate MEK/ERK phosphorylation via ROS. Our findings suggest that glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs are closely related to cardiac hypertrophy and further identify a molecular mechanism underlying the promotion of diabetic cardiomyopathy by AGEs.Cell biochemistry and biophysics 01/2013; · 3.34 Impact Factor