Desjeux P. Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives

Department of Control, Prevention and Elimination (CDS/CPE), Cluster of Communicable Diseases, World Health Organization (WHO), Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 2.02). 10/2004; 27(5):305-18. DOI: 10.1016/j.cimid.2004.03.004
Source: PubMed


Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with an important clinical and epidemiological diversity. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is of higher priority than cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as it is a fatal disease in the absence of treatment. Anthroponotic VL foci are of special concern as they are at the origin of frequent and deathly epidemics (e.g. Sudan). Leishmaniasis burden remains important: 88 countries, 350 million people at risk, 500,000 new cases of VL per year, 1-1.5 million for CL and DALYs: 2.4 millions. Most of the burden is concentrated on few countries which allows clear geographic priorities. Leishmaniasis is still an important public health problem due to not only environmental risk factors such as massive migrations, urbanisation, deforestation, new irrigation schemes, but also to individual risk factors: HIV, malnutrition, genetic, etc em leader Leishmaniasis is part of those diseases which still requires improved control tools. Consequently WHO/TDR research for leishmaniasis has been more and more focusing on the development of new tools such as diagnostic tests, drugs and vaccines. The ongoing effort has already produced significant results. The newly available control tools should allow a scaling up of control activities in priority areas. In anthroponotic foci, the feasibility of getting a strong impact on mortality, morbidity and transmission, is high.

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    • "Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is considered a parasitic zoonosis and is one of the most important public diseases in about 80 countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ASHFORD et al., 1992), distributed particularly in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world (ASHFORD, 2000; DESJEUX, 2004). Transmission of the parasite to humans and animals occurs through the bite of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera; Psychodidae) of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. "

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    • "Leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in many parts of the world, affecting over 20 million people worldwide. About 350 million people are at risk of being infected with leishmaniasis, and 1.5-2 million children and adults develop the disease each year (Desjeux, 2004). This disease is caused by a parasite, which belongs to the genus Leishmania. "
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    ABSTRACT: Leishmania are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of mammalian hosts. Promastigotes of Leishmania are internalized by macrophages and transformed into amastigotes in phagosomes, and replicate in phagolysosomes. Phagosomal maturation arrest is known to play a crucial role in the survival of pathogenic Leishmania within activated macrophages. Recently, tryptophan–aspartate containing coat (TACO) gene has been recognized as playing a central role in the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within human macrophages by arresting the phagosome maturation process. We postulated that a similar association of TACO gene with phagosomes would prevent the vacuole from maturation in the case of Leishmania. In this study we attempted to define the effect of TACO gene downregulation on the entry/survival of Leishmania donovani intracellularly, by treatment with Vitamin D 3 (Vit.D 3)/Retinoic acid (RA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA)/RA combinations in human THP-1 macrophages (in vitro). Treatment with these molecules downregulated the TACO gene in macrophages, resulting in reduced parasite load and marked reduction of disease progression in L. donovani infected macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that TACO gene downregulation may play a role in subverting macrophage machinery in establishing the L. donovani replicative niche inside the host. Our study is the first to highlight the important role of the TACO gene in Leishmania entry, survival and to identify TACO gene downregulation as potential drug target against leishmaniasis.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 10/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00946 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    • "CL is a public health problem at a global level and affects 1.5 million people annually worldwide (World Health Organization [WHO], 2010). At present, the administration of pentavalent antimony organic compounds (meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate) remains as the first choice of therapy for all leishmaniasis forms (Desjeux, 2004). However, resistance and high frequency of side effects are still the problems associated with this treatment (Santos et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Natural products and their compounds are some of the most interesting sources of new drugs. Reviews have reported various pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss (Lamiaceae). Objective: The present study investigates the chemical composition of Z. multiflora essential oil and evaluates its cytotoxic effects and anti-leishmanial activities against Leishmania tropica in an in vitro model. Materials and methods: The components of Z. multiflora oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis. Anti-leishmanial effects of the essential oil (0-100 μL/mL) and methanol extract of Z. multiflora (0-100 μg/mL) on promastigote forms as well as their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 h. The leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms of L. tropica was evaluated at the concentrations of 0-50 μg/mL in a macrophage model for 48 h. Results: The chemical analyses demonstrated that the main components of essential oil were thymol (41.81%), carvacrol (28.85%), and p-cymene (8.36%). Regarding leishmanicidal activity, the IC50 values for the essential oil and methanol extract were 3.2 μL/mL and 9.8 μg/mL against promastigote forms and 8.3 μL/mL and 34.6 μg/mL against amastigote forms, respectively. Essential oil (CC50 89.3 μL/mL) indicated a higher cytotoxic effect than the methanol extract (CC50 591.6 μg/mL) of Z. multiflora. Conclusion: The present study revealed the chemical composition of Z. multiflora that might be a natural source of new anti-leishmanial agents in terms of use against cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1079223 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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