NNC 55-0396 [(1S,2S)-2-(2-(N-[(3-benzimidazol-2-yl)propyl]-N-methylamino)ethyl)-6-fluoro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-isopropyl-2-naphtyl cyclopropanecarboxylate dihydrochloride]: a new selective inhibitor of T-type calcium channels.
ABSTRACT Mibefradil is a Ca2+ channel antagonist that inhibits both T-type and high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. We previously showed that block of high-voltage-activated channels by mibefradil occurs through the production of an active metabolite by intracellular hydrolysis. In the present study, we modified the structure of mibefradil to develop a nonhydrolyzable analog, (1S, 2S)-2-(2-(N-[(3-benzimidazol-2-yl)propyl]-N-methylamino)ethyl)-6-fluoro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-isopropyl-2-naphtyl cyclopropanecarboxylate dihydrochloride (NNC 55-0396), that exerts a selective inhibitory effect on T-type channels. The acute IC(50) of NNC 55-0396 to block recombinant alpha(1)G T-type channels in human embryonic kidney 293 cells was approximately 7 microM, whereas 100 microM NNC 55-0396 had no detectable effect on high-voltage-activated channels in INS-1 cells. NNC 55-0396 did not affect the voltage-dependent activation of T-type Ca2+ currents but changed the slope of the steady-state inactivation curve. Block of T-type Ca2+ current was partially relieved by membrane hyperpolarization and enhanced at a high-stimulus frequency. Washing NNC 55-0396 out of the recording chamber did not reverse the T-type Ca2+ current activity, suggesting that the compound dissolves in or passes through the plasma membrane to exert its effect; however, intracellular perfusion of the compound did not block T-type Ca2+ currents, arguing against a cytoplasmic route of action. After incubating cells from an insulin-secreting cell line (INS-1) with NNC 55-0396 for 20 min, mass spectrometry did not detect the mibefradil metabolite that causes L-type Ca2+ channel inhibition. We conclude that NNC 55-0396, by virtue of its modified structure, does not produce the metabolite that causes inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels, thus rendering it more selective to T-type Ca2+ channels.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immortalized neuronal cell lines can be induced to differentiate into more mature neurons by adding specific compounds or growth factors to the culture medium. This property makes neuronal cell lines attractive as in vitro cell models to study neuronal functions and neurotoxicity. The clonal human neuroblastoma BE(2)-M17 cell line is known to differentiate into a more prominent neuronal cell type by treatment with trans-retinoic acid. However, there is a lack of information on the morphological and functional aspects of these differentiated cells. RESULTS: We studied the effects of trans-retinoic acid treatment on (a) some differentiation marker proteins, (b) types of voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels and (c) Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter ([3H] glycine) release in cultured BE(2)-M17 cells. Cells treated with 10 muM trans-retinoic acid (RA) for 72 hrs exhibited marked changes in morphology to include neurite extensions; presence of P/Q, N and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels; and expression of neuron specific enolase (NSE), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 (nAChR-alpha7) and other neuronal markers. Moreover, retinoic acid treated cells had a significant increase in evoked Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter release capacity. In toxicity studies of the toxic gas, phosgene (CG), that differentiation of M17 cells with RA was required to see the changes in intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations following exposure to CG. CONCLUSION: Taken together, retinoic acid treated cells had improved morphological features as well as neuronal characteristics and functions; thus, these retinoic acid differentiated BE(2)-M17 cells may serve as a better neuronal model to study neurobiology and/or neurotoxicity.BMC Neuroscience 04/2013; 14(1):49. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's is a crippling neurodegenerative disease that largely affects aged individuals. Decades of research have highlighted age-related changes in calcium homeostasis that occur before and throughout the duration of the disease, and the contributions of such dysregulation to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. We report an age-related decrease in expression of the CaV3.1 T-type calcium channel at the level of messenger RNA and protein in both humans and mice that is exacerbated with the presence of Alzheimer's disease. Downregulating T-type calcium channels in N2a cells and the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, by way of pharmacologic inhibition with NNC-55-0396, results in a rapid increase in amyloid beta production via reductions in non-amyloidogenic processing, whereas genetic overexpression of the channel in human embryonic kidney cells expressing amyloid precursor protein produces complementary effects. The age-related decline in CaV3.1 expression may therefore contribute to a pro-amyloidogenic environment in the aging brain and represents a novel opportunity to intervene in the course of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.Neurobiology of aging 10/2013; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Numerous recent studies suggest that abnormal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a common defect in diabetic animal models and patients. Abnormal calcium handling is an important mechanism in the defective pancreatic β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. T-type Ca2+ channel antagonists lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism remains unknown. We examined the effect of the Ca2+ channel antagonist mibefradil on blood glucose in male db/db mice and phenotypically normal heterozygous mice by intraperitoneal injection. Mibefradil (15 mg/kg, i.p., b.i.d.) caused a profound reduction of fasting blood glucose from 430.92±20.46 mg/dl to 285.20±5.74 mg/dl in three days. The hypoglycemic effect of mibefradil was reproduced by NNC 55-0396, a compound structurally similar to mibefradil but more selective for T-type Ca2+ channels, but not by the specific L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nicardipine. Mibefradil did not show such hypoglycemic effects in heterozygous animals. In addition, triglycerides, basal insulin and food intake were significantly decreased by mibefradil treatment in the db/db mice but not in the controls. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining showed a significantly increased expression of T-type Ca2+ channel α-subunits Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 in liver and brain tissues from db/db mice compared to those from heterozygous animals. Collectively, these results suggest that T-type Ca2+ channels are potential therapeutic targets for antidiabetic drugs.Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 01/2014; 69(1):61-7. · 1.59 Impact Factor