Hypoxic up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase expression in mouse brain capillary endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT A protein with a molecular mass of 27kDa was induced by hypoxia in a mouse brain capillary endothelial cell line and identified as triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) by amino-terminal sequencing. Hypoxia caused an elevation of the TPI protein level, concomitant with an increase of the TPI mRNA level. However, hypoxia resulted in an insufficient elevation of TPI activity level, compared to an increase of TPI protein level. When cells expressing the recombinant TPI protein with histidine tag were exposed to hypoxia and the TPI protein was affinity-purified, the catalytic activity (specific activity) of the TPI protein purified from hypoxic cells was substantially lower than that obtained from normoxic cells. In addition, three TPI isoforms with an electrophoretic multiplicity were found; two of the three isoforms were substantially increased in response to the hypoxia, but the level of the most acidic isoform was barely changed. The induction of TPI gene expression by hypoxia was suppressed by (1) a chelator of intracellular Ca(2+), (2) a blocker of non-selective cation channels, (3) a blocker of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, (4) an inhibitor of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, and (5) an inhibitor of c-jun/AP-1 activation.
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ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic cells have evolved various response mechanisms to counteract the deleterious consequences of oxidative stress. Among these processes, metabolic alterations seem to play an important role. We recently discovered that yeast cells with reduced activity of the key glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase exhibit an increased resistance to the thiol-oxidizing reagent diamide. Here we show that this phenotype is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans and that the underlying mechanism is based on a redirection of the metabolic flux from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway, altering the redox equilibrium of the cytoplasmic NADP(H) pool. Remarkably, another key glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), is known to be inactivated in response to various oxidant treatments, and we show that this provokes a similar redirection of the metabolic flux. The naturally occurring inactivation of GAPDH functions as a metabolic switch for rerouting the carbohydrate flux to counteract oxidative stress. As a consequence, altering the homoeostasis of cytoplasmic metabolites is a fundamental mechanism for balancing the redox state of eukaryotic cells under stress conditions.Journal of Biology 01/2008; 6(4):10.
Article: The difference between rare and exceptionally rare: molecular characterization of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase deficiency.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) deficiency is an enzymopathy of the pentose phosphate pathway. It manifests with progressive leukoencephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy and belongs, with one sole diagnosed case, to the rarest human disorders. The single patient was found compound heterozygous for a RPI frameshift and a missense (RPI(Ala61Val)) allele. Here, we report that two patient-derived cell lines differ in RPI enzyme activity, enzyme concentration, and mRNA expression. Furthermore, we present a transgenic yeast model, which exhibits metabolite- and enzyme-activity changes that correspond to the human syndrome and show that the decrease in RPI activity in patient cells is not fully attributable to the residue exchange. Taken together, our results demonstrate that RPI deficiency is caused by the combination of a RPI null allele with an allele that encodes for a partially active enzyme which has, in addition, cell-type-dependent expression deficits. We speculate that a low probability for comparable traits accounts for the rareness of RPI deficiency.Journal of Molecular Medicine 05/2010; 88(9):931-9. · 4.67 Impact Factor
Article: Triose phosphate isomerase deficiency is caused by altered dimerization--not catalytic inactivity--of the mutant enzymes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by various mutations in the gene encoding the key glycolytic enzyme TPI. A drastic decrease in TPI activity and an increased level of its substrate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, have been measured in unpurified cell extracts of affected individuals. These observations allowed concluding that the different mutations in the TPI alleles result in catalytically inactive enzymes. However, despite a high occurrence of TPI null alleles within several human populations, the frequency of this disorder is exceptionally rare. In order to address this apparent discrepancy, we generated a yeast model allowing us to perform comparative in vivo analyses of the enzymatic and functional properties of the different enzyme variants. We discovered that the majority of these variants exhibit no reduced catalytic activity per se. Instead, we observed, the dimerization behavior of TPI is influenced by the particular mutations investigated, and by the use of a potential alternative translation initiation site in the TPI gene. Additionally, we demonstrated that the overexpression of the most frequent TPI variant, Glu104Asp, which displays altered dimerization features, results in diminished endogenous TPI levels in mammalian cells. Thus, our results reveal that enzyme deregulation attributable to aberrant dimerization of TPI, rather than direct catalytic inactivation of the enzyme, underlies the pathogenesis of TPI deficiency. Finally, we discovered that yeast cells expressing a TPI variant exhibiting reduced catalytic activity are more resistant against oxidative stress caused by the thiol-oxidizing reagent diamide. This observed advantage might serve to explain the high allelic frequency of TPI null alleles detected among human populations.PLoS ONE 02/2006; 1:e30. · 4.09 Impact Factor