Diflomotecan pharmacokinetics in relation to ABCG2 421C>A genotype.
ABSTRACT The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein [BCRP]) functions as an efflux transporter for many drugs, including the topoisomerase I inhibitor diflomotecan, and is expressed at high levels in the intestine and liver. We performed an exploratory analysis to evaluate the effects of the natural allelic variant ABCG2 421C>A on the pharmacokinetics of diflomotecan.
The drug was administered to 22 adult white patients with cancer as a 20-minute infusion (dose, 0.10-0.27 mg), followed 2 weeks later by an oral solution (dose, 0.10-0.35 mg).
The ABCG2 421C>A genotype significantly affected the pharmacokinetics of diflomotecan; in 5 patients heterozygous for this allele, plasma levels after intravenous drug administration were 299% (P =.015) of those in 15 patients with wild-type alleles, at mean values of 138 ng x h/mL x mg(-1) (95% confidence interval, 11.3-264 ng x h/mL x mg(-1)) versus 46.1 ng x h/mL x mg(-1) (95% confidence interval, 25.6-66.7 ng x h/mL x mg(-1)), respectively. Diflomotecan levels were not significantly influenced by 11 known variants in the ABCB1, ABCC2, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, and CYP3A5 genes.
These findings provide the first evidence linking variant ABCG2 alleles to altered drug exposure and suggest that interindividual variability in substrate drug effects might be influenced, in part, by ABCG2 genotype.
Article: Human multidrug resistance ABCB and ABCG transporters: participation in a chemoimmunity defense system.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this review we give an overview of the physiological functions of a group of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, which were discovered, and still referred to, as multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters. Although they indeed play an important role in cancer drug resistance, their major physiological function is to provide general protection against hydrophobic xenobiotics. With a highly conserved structure, membrane topology, and mechanism of action, these essential transporters are preserved throughout all living systems, from bacteria to human. We describe the general structural and mechanistic features of the human MDR-ABC transporters and introduce some of the basic methods that can be applied for the analysis of their expression, function, regulation, and modulation. We treat in detail the biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology of the ABCB1 (MDR1/P-glycoprotein) and the ABCG2 (MXR/BCRP) proteins and describe emerging information related to additional ABCB- and ABCG-type transporters with a potential role in drug and xenobiotic resistance. Throughout this review we demonstrate and emphasize the general network characteristics of the MDR-ABC transporters, functioning at the cellular and physiological tissue barriers. In addition, we suggest that multidrug transporters are essential parts of an innate defense system, the "chemoimmunity" network, which has a number of features reminiscent of classical immunology.Physiological Reviews 11/2006; 86(4):1179-236. · 26.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The efficacy of drug therapy results from the complex interplay of multiple processes that govern drug disposition and response. Most studies to date have focused on the contribution of drug-metabolizing enzymes to the drug disposition process. However, over the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that carrier-mediated processes, or transporters, also play critical roles in the overall disposition of numerous drugs in clinical use. In addition to their roles in xenobiotic transport, drug transporters often mediate important physiologic functions via transport of endogenous substrates such as amino acids, bile acids, and hormones that are critical for maintenance of normal homeostasis. In this review we focus on the emerging field of transporter proteins in relation to the drug disposition process, with particular emphasis on clinical implications of transporters to drug-drug interactions and subsequent development of adverse effects, interindividual variability in drug response, and human disease.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 10/2005; 78(3):260-77. · 6.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Drug transporters are recognized as key players in the processes of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. The localization of uptake and efflux transporters in organs responsible for drug biotransformation and excretion gives transporter proteins a unique gatekeeper function in controlling drug access to metabolizing enzymes and excretory pathways. This review seeks to discuss the influence intestinal and hepatic drug transporters have on pharmacokinetic parameters, including bioavailability, exposure, clearance, volume of distribution, and half-life, for orally dosed drugs. This review also describes in detail the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) and explains how many of the effects drug transporters exert on oral drug pharmacokinetic parameters can be predicted by this classification scheme.Pharmaceutical Research 07/2009; 26(9):2039-54. · 4.09 Impact Factor