A five-phase model for clinical-outcome research.
ABSTRACT Through a variety of approaches, speech-language pathologists and audiologists have produced strong evidence that treatments are generally potent. However, we have largely ignored the accepted standards for clinical-outcome testing used throughout the broader research community (e.g., by other clinical disciplines, federal regulators, and third-party payers). Several clinical professions recognize a comprehensive model for organizing and scaffolding the many forms of clinical-outcome research. An adaptation of this five-phase model of clinical-outcome research is examined as a means for structuring forms of clinical research throughout audiology and speech-language pathology. Within the organizing structure, relationships become apparent between types and grades of scientific evidence and the processes underpinning evidence-based practice which ultimately lead to decisions on the status of intervention protocols. LEARNING OUTCOMES: Readers will be able to distinguish the phases of clinical-outcome research in a comprehensive model. Readers will be able to identify relationships between the structure of the model and broadly recognized concepts associated with the terms 'efficacy' and 'effectiveness.' Readers will be able to identify indicators of quality for controlled clinical trials.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Although several treatments for acquired reading difficulties exist, few studies have explored the effectiveness of treatment for mild reading difficulties and treatment for reading difficulties associated with cognitive impairment.Aphasiology 05/2013; 27(5):509-531. DOI:10.1080/02687038.2013.780283 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drugs (medicines) are considered either the primary therapy or an adjunct to another modality. Physicians of all specialties prescribe drugs on a daily basis, and therefore they need to understand the mode and action by which drugs exert their therapeutic effects. Written records of the use of natural products as medicinal agents date back thousands of years. However, it was not until the early 1800s that the active principles from plants were isolated. Since then thousands of drugs have been introduced to the drugs market. With advances in drug design, molecular biology and genetics, the rate of developing new potent drugs is accelerated. Due to the vast progress in drug development and discovery, medical and pharmacy students, doctors, nurses and pharmacists in training need to learn the principles of therapeutics in order to follow up with the frequent changes in the therapeutics and adapt to them. With contributions from some of my colleagues, this book provides a clear and concise overview of the most important commonly used drugs with emphasis on the pharmacology aspects necessary for a basic understanding of the subject. It reviews the concepts, clinical applications, dosage forms, bioavailability, pharmacokinetics and side effects of a large number of drugs used to alleviate pain, lower cholesterol levels, and treat bacterial infections, diabetes, osteoporosis, bleeding, psoriasis and multiple Sclerosis. This book, with over 750 references, is an excellent pharmacology text for the student who is looking to broaden his/her strengths prior to the exam. The beauty of this text is that it includes essential pharmacology concepts in a compact book that can be quickly referenced and read multiple times during the course of a student's studies. In addition, this guide assists scientists trained in molecular biology, medicinal chemistry and related fields who need to know the basic theories, principles and practical applications of pharmacology. With the addition of pharmacokinetics coverage, ways to improve the bioavailability of commonly used drugs and sections on therapeutics that will help readers identify with diseases and drug treatments, this book provides better preparation of researchers in the basics of pharmacology.1 edited by Rafik Karaman, 01/2015; Nova Science Publishers, Inc., NY, USA., ISBN: 9781634638289
Chapter: DRUG OVERVIEW[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A drug is a chemical substance with known biological effects on humans or other animals. In the pharmacology field, a drug is defined as a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being. Drugs usually affect either normal or abnormal physiological processes. Drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders. The way drugs are classified or grouped are confusing. Therefore, a new approach of drugs classification is presented in this chapter along with general information on drugs which includes definition, drugs and diseases types, drugs administration, drugs interactions and drug names. In addition, the chapter describes some important aspects of drugs design and development, drug effectiveness and safety, and drug errors.Commonly Used Drugs - Uses, Side Effects, Bioavailability & Approaches to Improve it, 1 edited by Rafik Karaman, 01/2015: chapter 1: pages 1-40; Nova Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-63463-828-9