Exposure to NO2 and Nitrous Acid and Respiratory Symptoms in the First Year of Life
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States Epidemiology
(Impact Factor: 6.2).
08/2004; 15(4):471-8. DOI: 10.1097/01.ede.0000129511.61698.d8
Effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on respiratory health have been the subject of extensive research. The outcomes of these studies were not consistent. Exposure to nitrous acid, which is a primary product of combustion, and is also formed when NO2 reacts with water, may play an important role in respiratory health. We estimate the independent effects of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and nitrous acid on respiratory symptoms during the first year of life.
Nitrogen dioxide and nitrous acid concentrations were measured once (1996-1998) in the homes of 768 infants who were at risk for developing asthma. Infants were living in southern New England. The frequency of respiratory symptoms in these children was recorded during the first year of life.
Infants living in homes with an NO2 concentration exceeding 17.4 ppb (highest quartile) had a higher frequency of days with wheeze (rate ratio = 2.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.4-3.4), persistent cough (1.8; 1.2-2.7), and shortness of breath (3.1; 1.8-5.6) when compared with infants in homes that had NO2 concentrations lower than 5.1 ppb (lowest quartile), controlling for nitrous acid concentration. Nitrous acid exposure was not independently associated with respiratory symptoms.
Among infants at risk for developing asthma, the frequency of reported respiratory symptoms in the first year of life was associated with levels of NO2 not currently considered to be harmful.
Available from: Changkyoo Yoo
- "Hence, adequate control is needed to reduce NO 2 . If the control of NO 2 does not work adequately, this sensitive environment could cause the respiratory problems to the patients suffering with asthma, at concentration of 650 ppb over the duration of 3 hr (Van Strien et al., 2004). Figure 10b and c show the plots for cumulative values of CO and CO 2 obtained for 1 yr. "
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Subway systems are considered as main public transportation facility in developed countries. Time spent by people in indoors, such as underground spaces, subway stations, and indoor buildings, has gradually increased in the recent past. Especially, operators or old persons who stay in indoor environments more than 15 hr per day usually influenced a greater extent by indoor air pollutants. Hence, regulations on indoor air pollutants are needed to ensure good health of people. Therefore, in this study, a new cumulative calculation method for the estimation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted inside the subway station is proposed by taking cumulative amounts of indoor air pollutants based on integration concept. Minimum concentration of individual air pollutants which naturally exist in indoor space is referred as base concentration of air pollutants and can be found from the data collected. After subtracting the value of base concentration from data point of each data set of indoor air pollutant, the primary quantity of emitted air pollutant is calculated. After integration is carried out with these values, adding the base concentration to the integration quantity gives the total amount of indoor air pollutant emitted. Moreover the values of new index for cumulative indoor air quality obtained for 1 day are calculated using the values of cumulative air quality index (CAI). Cumulative comprehensive indoor air quality index (CCIAI) is also proposed to compare the values of cumulative concentrations of indoor air pollutants. From the results, it is clear that the cumulative assessment approach of indoor air quality (IAQ) is useful for monitoring the values of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted, in case of exposure to indoor air pollutants for a long time. Also, the values of CCIAI are influenced more by the values of concentration of NO2, which is released due to the use of air conditioners and combustion of the fuel. The results obtained in this study confirm that the proposed method can be applied to monitor total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted, inside apartments and hospitals as well.
Nowadays, subway systems are considered as main public transportation facility in developed countries. Time spent by people in indoors, such as underground spaces, subway stations, and indoor buildings, has gradually increased in the recent past. Especially, operators or old persons who stay in the indoor environments more than 15 hr per day usually influenced a greater extent by indoor air pollutants. Hence, regulations on indoor air pollutants are needed to ensure good health of people. Therefore, this paper presents a new methodology for monitoring and assessing total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted inside underground spaces and subway stations. A new methodology for the calculation of cumulative amounts of indoor air pollutants based on integration concept is proposed. The results suggest that the cumulative assessment approach of IAQ is useful for monitoring the values of total amounts of indoor air pollutants, if indoor air pollutants accumulated for a long time, especially NO2 pollutants. The results obtained here confirm that the proposed method can be applied to monitor total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted, inside apartments and hospitals as well.
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 05/2012; 62(5):517-26. DOI:10.1080/10962247.2012.660558 · 1.34 Impact Factor
Available from: Frederik Buchvald
- "In this study, the median indoor NO 2 concentration was 7.5 lg/m 3 , which is similar to that found in two other studies (Farrow et al., 1997; Sunyer et al., 2004), but lower than the concentrations measured in similar settings in three other studies of infant respiratory symptoms (Magnus et al., 1998; Samet et al., 1993; van Strien et al., 2004). Thus, the relatively low levels of indoor air pollution might have contributed to the null results of this study. "
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ABSTRACT: Long-term exposure to air pollution is suspected to cause recurrent wheeze in infants. The few previous studies have had ambiguous results. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of measured long-term exposure to indoor air pollution on wheezing symptoms in infants. We monitored wheezing symptoms in diaries for a birth cohort of 411 infants. We measured long-term exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), NO(2), formaldehyde, PM(2.5) and black smoke in the infants' bedrooms and analyzed risk associations during the first 18 months of life by logistic regression with the dichotomous end-point 'any symptom-day' (yes/no) and by standard linear regression with the end-point 'number of symptom-days'. The results showed no systematic association between risk for wheezing symptoms and the levels of these air pollutants with various indoor and outdoor sources. In conclusion, we found no evidence of an association between long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants, suggesting that indoor air pollution is not causally related to the underlying disease. Practical Implications Nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde and fine particles were measured in the air in infants' bedrooms. The results showed no evidence of an association between long-term exposure and wheezing symptoms in the COPSAC birth cohort.
Indoor Air 10/2009; 20(2):159-67. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2009.00635.x · 4.90 Impact Factor
Available from: CY Chen
- "Air pollutant/condition Ref. no. Odds ratio/% affected Cough Wheeze Particulate matter PM 2.5 : 115 vs. 61 mg/m 3  1.90 2.33 PM 10 : each mg/m 3 increase  1.56 1.28 PM 10 : 10 mg/m 3 decrease  0.65 0.92 ns Gases NO 2 : each 20 ppb increase  1.06 ns 1.52 NO 2 : 17.4 vs. 5.1 ppb  1.80 2.20 SO 2 : each 10 ppb increase  1.04 ns 1.57 Environmental tobacco smoke Exposure at home  "
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to air pollution is associated with respiratory symptoms and decreases in lung function. This paper reviews recent literature showing that exposure to particulate matter, irritant gases, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), mixed pollutants, and molds is associated with an increase in cough and wheeze. Some pollutants, like particulate matter and mixed pollutants, appear to increase cough at least as much as wheeze. Others, like irritant gases, appear to increase wheeze more than cough. For ETS, exposure during childhood is associated with cough and wheeze in adulthood, suggesting that the pollutant permanently alters some important aspect of the lungs, immune system or nervous system. We have shown in animal studies that pollutants change the neural control of airways and cough. Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure lengthened stimulated apnoea, increased the number of stimulated coughs, and augmented the degree of stimulated bronchoconstriction. The mechanisms included enhanced reactivity of the peripheral sensory neurones and second-order neurones in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). NTS effects were due to a substance P mechanism at least in part. Ozone and allergen increased the intrinsic excitability of second-order neurones in the NTS. The animal studies suggest that the cough and wheeze experienced by humans exposed to pollutants may involve plasticity in the nervous system.
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 02/2007; 20(4):347-54. DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2006.10.013 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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