Obstructive sleep apnea in children: do intranasal corticosteroids help?
ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition of childhood, and is associated with significant morbidity. Prevalence of the condition peaks during early childhood, due in part to adenoidal and tonsillar enlargement within a small pharyngeal space. The lymphoid tissues regress after 10 years of age, in the context of ongoing bony growth, and there is an associated fall in the prevalence of OSA. Obstruction of the nasopharynx by adenoidal enlargement promotes pharyngeal airway collapse during sleep, and the presence of large tonsils contributes to airway obstruction. Administration of systemic corticosteroids leads to a reduction in the size of lymphoid tissues due to anti-inflammatory and lympholytic effects. However, a short course of systemic prednisone has been demonstrated not to have a significant effect on adenoidal size or the severity of OSA, and adverse effects preclude the long-term use of this therapy. Intranasal corticosteroids are effective in relieving nasal obstruction in allergic rhinitis, and allergic sensitization is more prevalent among children who snore than among those who do not snore. Intranasal corticosteroids have also been demonstrated to reduce adenoidal size, independent of the individual's atopic status. There is preliminary evidence of an improvement in the severity of OSA in children treated with intranasal corticosteroids, but further studies are needed before such therapy can be routinely recommended. Prescribing clinicians should take into account the potential benefits to the patient, the age of the child, the presence of comorbidities such as allergic rhinitis, the agent used, and the dose and duration of treatment when considering such therapy.
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ABSTRACT: OPINION STATEMENT: An array of surgical, medical and orthodontic treatments is available for treating childhood obstructive sleep apnea. Adenotonsillectomy remains the first choice in treatment, with a need for subsequent clinical and polysomnographic reassessment in selected cases to determine residual sleep-disordered breathing. Residual obstructive sleep apnea is more likely in patients with craniofacial abnormalities or obesity. It may require the use of a positive airway pressure breathing device. Topical corticosteroids, leukotriene antagonists, weight reduction, and positional therapy also play a role in ameliorating childhood obstructive sleep apnea. The published evidence for the efficacy of various treatment modalities consists largely of case-controlled studies and case reports.Current Treatment Options in Neurology 09/2010; 12(5):369-78. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traditionally, adenotonsillectomy (AT) has long been the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children. AT is usually considered a safe procedure, which cures 80% of children with SDB. Accumulated data have however challenged this overly simplistic view. Indeed, AT is invariably associated with significant morbidity, post-operative pain, and a mortality rate which, though low, cannot be ignored. In addition, aside from a recurrence of SDB at adolescence in an unknown percentage of cases, some recent results suggest that complete SDB cure is not achieved in as much as 75% of cases after AT. Interestingly, several treatment options have been recently proposed for replacing or complementing AT. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is now suggested in children with remaining SDB after AT; however, compliance and suitability of equipment remain important hurdles, especially in small children and infants. Anti-inflammatory treatments, including nasal glucocorticoids and/or the anti-leukotriene montelukast, appear to hold great promise. Finally, orthodontic treatments are an appealing option, with recent results in children suggesting that it is possible to improve or perhaps even cure SDB in a durable manner by enlarging the nasal passages and/or the oropharyngeal airspace. In conclusion, while we are currently in the midst of an exciting time with several new treatments being developed for childhood SDB, randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to delineate their indications. In the meantime, it appears that systematic detection of orthodontic anomalies and better collaboration with maxillofacial specialists, including orthodontists and/or dentists, is needed for deciding the best treatment options for childhood SDB.Pediatric Pulmonology 10/2008; 43(9):837-43. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children is associated with detrimental neurocognitive and behavioral consequences. The long term impact of treatment on these outcomes is unknown. This study examined the long-term effect of treatment of SDB on neurocognition, academic ability, and behavior in a cohort of school-aged children. Four-year longitudinal study. Children originally diagnosed with SDB and healthy non-snoring controls underwent repeat polysomnography and age-standardized neurocognitive and behavioral assessment 4y following initial testing. Melbourne Children's Sleep Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Children 12-16 years of age, originally assessed at 7-12 years, were categorized into Treated (N = 12), Untreated (N = 26), and Control (N = 18) groups. Adenotonsillectomy, Tonsillectomy, Nasal Steroids. Decision to treat was independent of this study. Changes in sleep and respiratory parameters over time were assessed. A decrease in obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) from Time 1 to Time 2 was seen in 63% and 100% of the Untreated and Treated groups, respectively. The predictive relationship between change in OAHI and standardized neurocognitive, academic, and behavioral scores over time was examined. Improvements in OAHI were predictive of improvements in Performance IQ, but not Verbal IQ or academic measures. Initial group differences in behavioral assessment on the Child Behavior Checklist did not change over time. Children with SDB at baseline continued to exhibit significantly poorer behavior than Controls at follow-up, irrespective of treatment. After four years, improvements in SDB are concomitant with improvements in some areas of neurocognition, but not academic ability or behavior in school-aged children. Briggs SN; Vlahandonis A; Anderson V; Bourke R; Nixon GM; Davey MJ; Horne RSC. Long-term changes in neurocognition and behavior following treatment of sleep disordered breathing in school-aged children. SLEEP 2014;37(1):77-84.Sleep 01/2014; 37(1):77-84. · 5.10 Impact Factor