Obstructive sleep apnea in children: do intranasal corticosteroids help?
ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition of childhood, and is associated with significant morbidity. Prevalence of the condition peaks during early childhood, due in part to adenoidal and tonsillar enlargement within a small pharyngeal space. The lymphoid tissues regress after 10 years of age, in the context of ongoing bony growth, and there is an associated fall in the prevalence of OSA. Obstruction of the nasopharynx by adenoidal enlargement promotes pharyngeal airway collapse during sleep, and the presence of large tonsils contributes to airway obstruction. Administration of systemic corticosteroids leads to a reduction in the size of lymphoid tissues due to anti-inflammatory and lympholytic effects. However, a short course of systemic prednisone has been demonstrated not to have a significant effect on adenoidal size or the severity of OSA, and adverse effects preclude the long-term use of this therapy. Intranasal corticosteroids are effective in relieving nasal obstruction in allergic rhinitis, and allergic sensitization is more prevalent among children who snore than among those who do not snore. Intranasal corticosteroids have also been demonstrated to reduce adenoidal size, independent of the individual's atopic status. There is preliminary evidence of an improvement in the severity of OSA in children treated with intranasal corticosteroids, but further studies are needed before such therapy can be routinely recommended. Prescribing clinicians should take into account the potential benefits to the patient, the age of the child, the presence of comorbidities such as allergic rhinitis, the agent used, and the dose and duration of treatment when considering such therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Conclusions regarding the significance and appearance of the adenoids incidentally noted on magnetic resonance (MR) scans of the brain largely rely on observations of previously published plain film data. In order to determine the age specific appearance of normal adenoid tissue as measured on sagittal T1-weighted midline MR images, we evaluated 189 patients without a history or clinical evidence of adenoid disease, who were sequentially referred for an MR scan of the brain. The thickness of the adenoid pad was measured to the nearest 1 mm along a line through the pharyngeal tubercle constructed perpendicular to the anterior clival surface. Patients were grouped according to age. Normal subjects demonstrated an age specific variation in the size of the pad with the maximal size being attained in early childhood and then steadily decreasing in later childhood and adulthood (P = 0.0001). The adenoids were largest in the 7-10 years age group (mean, 14.59 mm) and steadily declined to 4.83 mm by 60 years of age. Previous surgery had no effect on adenoid measurement (P = 0.582). Magnetic resonance scans provide an excellent method for assessing the adenoid pad.Clinical Otolaryngology 11/2000; 25(5):392-5. · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study the postoperative outcome of infants under the age of 18 months in whom an adenotonsillectomy had been performed, with particular emphasis on the pre- and postoperative weight gain and linear growth velocities, and the resolution of symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). A retrospective study of all infants in whom an adenotonsillectomy had been performed during the 5 year period to January 1990. Details of pre- and postoperative outcome variables were obtained by review of hospital and office records and by telephone calls to the parents. Complete data were available for 29 (76%) of the 38 infants in whom an adenotonsillectomy had been performed. The data from these infants are reported. Pre-operatively, all infants had clinical symptoms of OSA, and 52% of infants also presented with failure to thrive (FTT). Seven infants were dysmorphic: three had Down syndrome, three had a craniofacial anomaly and one infant had Mobius syndrome. Following adenotonsillectomy, 23 infants (79%) had complete resolution of their OSA symptoms. Two infants with Down syndrome required a tracheostomy to relieve persistent upper airway obstruction. Eighty-seven per cent of the infants with pre-operative FTT had a significant increase in weight gain velocity postoperatively (mean 195.1 +/- 80.8 s.d. vs 509.8 +/- 249.1 g/month; P < 0.001), including the infants with mild persistent symptoms of OSA. The weight gain velocity of infants who were not failing to thrive pre-operatively did not change significantly following adenotonsillectomy (328.1 +/- 106.9 vs 333.2 +/- 146.4 g/month; P = 0.82). The linear growth velocity of all infants did not change significantly postoperatively. OSA should be considered in infants with FTT, as adenotonsillectomy is an effective treatment for OSA in infancy, and the weight gain velocity of these infants may increase significantly postoperatively. Overnight oximetry or other physiological studies may be required if the clinical signs and symptoms of OSA are equivocal.Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 06/1995; 31(3):172-5. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children and adolescents; specifically, quantifying risk associated with obesity, race, and upper and lower respiratory problems. Subjects were participants in a genetic-epidemiologic study of SDB and included 399 children and adolescents 2 to 18 yr of age, recruited as members of families with a member (a proband) with known sleep apnea (31 index families) or as members of neighborhood control families (30 families). SDB was assessed with home overnight multichannel monitoring and SDB was defined based on an apneahypopnea index >/= 10 (moderately affected) or < 5 (unaffected). SDB of moderate level was significantly associated with obesity (odds ratio, 4.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58 to 13.33) and African-American race (odds ratio, 3.49; 95% CI, 1.56 to 8.32) but not with sex or age. After adjusting for obesity, proband sampling, race and familial clustering, sinus problems and persistent wheeze each independently (of the other) predicted SDB. These data suggest the importance of upper and lower respiratory problems and obesity as risk factors for SDB in children and adolescents. Increased risk in African Americans appears to be independent of the effects of obesity or respiratory problems.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 05/1999; 159(5 Pt 1):1527-32. · 11.04 Impact Factor